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(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
There are and have been many lingua francas other than English, but the global extent to which English has become a contact language is entirely unprecedented.
20) Therefore, in order for the analogy explaining it as a contact language to be valid, Canaano-Akkadian would have to have been a spoken language.
Depending on their local relative importance, the number of their speakers, the non-dominant languages can be home languages helping their speakers to maintain their feeling of ethnic identity and pride, or they can be local municipal administrative languages, or lingue franche and trade languages over a more extended area, or more widely used and understood contact languages of considerable importance which can function as secondary major languages in parts of the country.
The fact that Dolgan, as a known contact language of Nganasan, shows a similar distribution of the copula in present and past tense context which differs from Selkup is indeed intriguing.
If such people were represented in a contact situation, the unambiguously singular me and plural we might well have been favored for adoption in the contact language.
They brought a grammaticalization product into the adopting language, which had occurred in the contact language, by copying polysemy in the contact language between the grammaticalized and pre-grammaticalization interpretations of a speech form.
Updated to include the most recent research and policies, this covers the concerns of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, including recruitment, policy, selection and credentials, public relations, evaluation, collective bargaining, data analysis, budgeting, investigations, planning and problem solving, grievance processing and arbitration as well as the text of the standards and selected contact language.
The problem with these explanations is that there is no precise method to assess whether a substrate influence that is linguistically possible, could actually have initiated the corresponding change in the contact language (see Laakso 1999).
However, the documentation he presents shows that certain special innovative developments have taken place and can be explained by the sociolinguistic status of the speakers, many of whom are bilingual or trilingual and are influenced by the two dominating contact languages, Chinese and Uyghur.
As the author of the study points out in the findings of her research, her results on future reference in Livonian and other Finnic languages should be considered as data for further studies in the context of contact languages.
Ndebele borrows lexical and phonological elements from contact languages.
In addition to the traditional contact languages pidgins, creoles, and mixed languages, linguists here examine two new forms: multi-ethnolects and written language intertwining.