Long-term BER can be estimated from the measurements using error model based on Neyman Type A contagious distribution , .
The BER vs SNR class plots contain 95 % confidence intervals for the bit error rates calculated using (1) and the long-term bit error rates (denoted with black asterisks) estimated with the error model based on Neyman Type A contagious distribution. We can see that estimated long-term BER is bellow the averaged BER calculated using (1) and in the most cases falls inside the computed confidence interval.
The second approach estimates the long-term BER using recorded number of bit errors in received messages and error model based on Neyman Type A contagious distribution appropriate for channels with impulsive noise.
Service (1993) noted that "several mathematical models have been proposed to describe contagious distributions of natural populations, but the negative binomial model appears to be the most widely applicable." It has been shown to fit the frequency distribution of salmon (Welch and Ishida 1993), arthropods (Pieters et al.
The fit and significance of contagious distributions when applied to observations on larval insects.