Other things that required thought and aircraft management adjustments included: restrictions on selecting reduced power for takeoff during certain wind or contaminated runway
conditions; crew resource management adaptations for the three-man crew folks; the tendency for new-generation pilots to rely on computer-generated data without knowing how it was derived or questioning it when it "just didn't seem right"; the tendency for all of us "old dogs" to still want "all she's got on every takeoff--just in case"; and, the uncomfortable feeling during the seemingly-forever-engine-spool-up-time when executing a missed approach.
The model accounts for many contaminated runway scenarios, including hydroplaning, the effect of wind, the speed-dependent rolling-friction coefficient, and other important parameters.
Airplane landing performance on contaminated runways in adverse conditions, Journal of Aircraft 45(6): 2131-2144.
A wet or contaminated runway
further increases the distance you'll need to stop, and can reduce the effectiveness of your brakes.
Possibly, but more likely they describe the factors contributing to another NTSB report on a contaminated runway overrun.
Charts for a 737-200 advise crews how much to modify the airplane's weight--lighter is better--and speed--V1 speeds generally are reduced, allowing aborts from lower speeds--to obtain necessary performance on a contaminated runway.
All these accidents involved contaminated runways but the real cause was pilot-induced.
The biggest danger during a landing on contaminated runways is hydroplaning (see sidebar above), but pilots continue to stack the deck to their disadvantage.
They discuss dry, wet, slippery and contaminated runways, with three sub-levels of contamination.
Flysmart can improve payload by a tonne on challenging missions, via more precise take-off performance calculation, and delivers more consistent results in degraded conditions, such as when landing on contaminated runways
Unstable approaches--situations where the aircraft is too fast, above the glide slope, or touches down beyond the desired touchdown point--and contaminated runways
are among the most common contributing factors to runway excursions on landing.
As part of an ongoing review, this statement provides preliminary information on (1) the extent to which large commercial airplanes have experienced accidents and incidents related to icing and contaminated runways
, (2) the efforts of FAA and aviation stakeholders to improve safety in icing and winter weather operating conditions, and (3) the challenges that continue to affect aviation safety in icing and winter weather operating conditions.