A research led by a University of Calgary geophysicist provided strong evidence against continent formation
above a hot mantle plume, similar to an environment that presently exists beneath the Hawaiian Islands.
The topics include Vishnu basement rocks of the upper Granite Gorge: continent formation
1.84 to 1.66 billion years ago, the Neoproterozoic Earth system revealed from the Chuar Group of Grand Canyon, geologic history and paleogeography of Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, faulting and uplift in the Grand Canyon region, and the Quaternary geomorphology.
and van Keken, P.E., 2001, Middle Archean continent formation
by crustal delamination: Geology, v.
Water was also extremely important in continent formation
, a process based on plate tectonics.
The theory of plate tectonics holds that the Earth's geological processes, from earthquakes and volcanoes to mountain-building and continent formation
, are the result of the slow movements of a dozen or so gigantic slabs that shift over the asthenosphere, a molten region of the upper mantle.
The possible presence of granite also suggests that tectonic plate movement and continent formation
may have occurred on Venus, as well as recycling of water and carbon between the planet's mantle and atmosphere.