Caption: Figure 5: The contour lines
of the hemisphere model.
Based on the features of the contour line
map, it is clear that [z.sub.V] should be less than [H.sub.BC] + [DELTA]h; however, when [delta] = 1, [z.sub.V] will be equal to [H.sub.BC] + [DELTA]h.
Varol, "An implementation of automatic contour line
extraction from scanned digital topographic maps," Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol.
As shown in Figure 12, the river segment is first displaced under the counterpart constraints [s.sub.1] to [m.sub.1] where [m.sub.1] is the middle point of a contour line
from intersection point s1 to its matched valley bottom point [s.sub.1].
The accuracy of (8) is assessed as above by comparing the contour lines
computed as circles with contour plots computed with the corresponding exact relationship (6).
Based on the one of the contour lines
extracted from the Flower A, a 3D model was established, and the results are shown in Fig.
Topographic maps, whether prepared by the USGS or a private surveyor, will represent vertical changes in the terrain as broken lines termed contour lines
. The lines represent a vertical rise or fall over the horizontal distance measured from the map's scale.
Interpolating is the process of locating the position of a contour line
between the elevations of two stations.
However, shadow tips that fell on rapidly changing topography made accurate height determination difficult, because a slight mismeasurement of the shadow length could cause the tip to fall on the wrong contour line
. This is what caused the particular 33 percent error - the shadow tip landed smack in the middle of several closely spaced contour lines
, and I picked the wrong one.
For a tilt angle [Delta] [is less than] 60[degrees], the lost coverage is below the contour line
, while for [Delta] [is greater than] 60[degrees], the lost coverage is above the line.
Guridi solves the problem of having to illustrate nothing-ness by using two types of contour line
, and two colour schemes.
The vehicle features an angular design with pointed, upswept LED headlamps and large trapezoidal grille, which has wide horizontal slats finished in dark grey and a centrally mounted Toyota emblem, an inverted contour line
that separates the upper and lower air-dams and creates a triangular space that houses the fog lamps, a silver-hued skid plate and twin bonnet bulges.