According to [11], the following parameters are specified for the downhill simplex algorithm: reflection coefficient [alpha] = 1, expansion coefficient [gamma] = 2,

contraction coefficient (used for both - single point and full contractions) [beta] = 0.7, the tolerance parameter [epsilon] = [10.sup.-10] (for (3.5) we have used [epsilon] = [10.sup.-15]).

The contraction coefficient and stiffness coefficient are obtained by using different pressures and least square method (LSM) through the static force balance experiments.

[F.sub.p], [K.sub.p], and [B.sub.p] are the contraction coefficient, stiffness coefficient, and damping coefficient of pneumatic muscle, respectively.

where [[rho].sub.a], [C.sub.a] and [d.sub.0] are the ambient gas density, area

contraction coefficient and the outlet diameter of nozzle orifice.

where [C.sub.c] is the

contraction coefficient, defined as [20], [22]:

The copper tubes have been deformed because of the anisotropy in the compressive stresses resulting from the higher thermal

contraction coefficient of aluminum.

When rubber runs through the cooling system, it is being cooled and contracts with

contraction coefficient [micro]<1.

[??](s) has the expression corresponding to Maxwell mechanical model, specifically for plastics, G is the transversal elasticity modulus, K is the compressibility modulus, v is the transversal Poisson

contraction coefficient and [eta] is the constant corresponding to Newtonian component of the Maxwell model.

The LE, linear expansion coefficient (LEC), LC, and linear

contraction coefficient (LCC) were calculated as follows:

The

contraction coefficient [phi] is defined as the ratio of area of contracted jet to the area of tangential port.

[C.sub.c] =

contraction coefficient, the ratio of the jet area at the vena contract a downstream of the bore to the area of the bore itself (dimensionless)

* making a very precise scale model, which should take in consideration in its geometrical dimensions the

contraction coefficient of the cast part alloy.