contrails


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contrails

A long trail of visible moisture left by an airplane as it flies at a high altitude through very cold air. The trails are formed by the condensation of water vapor in the exhaust gases leaving the engine. They appear at a slight distance behind the aircraft exhaust. Their longevity can vary from a fraction of a second to a few minutes. The minimum flight level at which these trails occur is called the MINTRA level, which meteorologists obtain from a tephigram. Also called vapor trails or exhaust trails.
References in periodicals archive ?
Scientists have known about the greenhouse effect of contrail cirrus for years-in fact, there's an entire niche field of research devoted to it.
"What is not seen in the photos is a third vertical contrail parallel to the two in the photo," Heyse added.
Sara Qureshi, co-founder of Aero Engine Craft, has done PhD in Aerospace from the UK and now she is working on a start-up to address the global climate change issue arising out of contrail of airplanes.
Contrails were largely ignored in the decades following.
Researchers are most interested in persistent contrails because they create long-lasting, and sometimes extensive, clouds that would not normally form in the atmosphere, and are believed to be a factor in influencing Earth's environment.
Minnis, 2012: Physical and optical properties of persistent contrails: Climatology and interpretation.
In order to overcome the limitations of manual detection methods for contrails, researchers attempted to develop automatic algorithms to detect contrails depending on satellite imagery.
Contrails are clouds formed when water vapour condenses and freezes around small particles (aerosols) that exist in aircraft exhaust.
Air chemist Dr Gavin Phillips, of the University of Chester, said: "The long, thin clouds, or contrails, that form behind aircraft are caused by water vapour in the jet engine exhaust condensing as ice in cold air.
CITATION: Lim, Y., Gardi, A., and Sabatini, R., "Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation," SAE Int.
"There were no wings, no audible sound, no propellers, no finnedempennage, no smoke, no contrails. "My best guesstimate is that they were at an altitude of 8 kilometres, around 3 to 4.5 metres in length each."
In aeronautics, contrails are better known as what?