For medium-to-long-range forecast models, which parameterize convection, parameterization schemes should be developed that function in coarse-resolution model space (such as PBL height, wave duct height, and convective precipitation
) as a proxy for the development of bores.
Parameterization of Convective Precipitation
in Mesoscale Numerical Models: A Critical Review.
Different Z-I relationships, including Z = 200[I.sup.1.6] for stratiform precipitation and Z = 486[I.sup.1.37] for convective precipitation
, were applied to derive rain rate.
This can be explained by the maximum of convective precipitation
corresponding to the daily maximum of air temperature, which is most typical for the summer season.
The precipitation increase for April-September found in this study is also consistent with the expected increase in conditions that support summertime convective precipitation
(namely humidity and CAPE (convective available potential energy), as seen in the study by Trapp et al.
Precipitation from clouds formed by this process is called convective precipitation
. Low- to very-high-intensity rainfall characterizes this type of precipitation.
All three bin schemes produced a squall line with features resembling the observed storm characteristics, that is, with a leading edge of convective precipitation
and trailing stratiform rain.
Large areas of weak echoes were found to the north of the key area, suggesting that during 00-06 UTC 4 July, the rainstorm mainly comprised deep convective precipitation
in the south and stratocumulus precipitation in the north.
Numerous studies have found areas of enhanced convective precipitation
downwind of large cities while others have noted a "splitting" of convective cells around urban centers.
Comparative Experiment on the Effect of Ice Nuclei Parameterizations on the Convective Precipitation