T'ang, Chinese dynasty
, dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907. It was founded by Li Yuan and his son Li Shih-min, with the aid of Turkish allies. The early strength of the T'ang was built directly upon the excellent system of communications and administration established by the Sui. At first the neighboring peoples, nomadic and civilized, were held in check, and by the mid-7th cent. the T'ang occupied or controlled large portions of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Turkistan. During the T'ang China was open to foreign ideas and developed trade with neighboring countries and Central Asia. While the introduction of foreign music and dances enriched the T'ang culture, the Chinese Confucian culture and administrative system had profound influence in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Sculpture flourished (T'ang horses are especially noted) and the painting (of which few examples have survived) is considered superior. In literature poetry was the most highly developed form; Li Po (701–62), Tu Fu (712–70), and Po Chu-I (772–846) were the most distinguished poets. The classics of Confucianism were closely studied and provided the basis for the civil-service examinations that were to assume great importance later (see Chinese examination system
). Although religious toleration was usually practiced, foreign cults were sometimes proscribed; Buddhism was suppressed in the Hu-chiang period, and many Buddhist monasteries were dissolved, at great profit to the state treasury. The high-water mark of territorial expansion and political unity was reached during the reign of Emperor Hsuan Tsung (712–56). Defeat by the Arabs at the Talas River in W Turkistan (751) checked T'ang ambitions in the west, and the costly struggle against the An Lu-shan rebellion (755–63) finally exhausted the empire. Warlord governors turned many provinces into autonomous personal domains. The vigor of the early T'ang administration quickly declined, and control over border regions was lost, especially to the Uigurs, who became dominant in Mongolia. In the 9th cent. local maladministration became widespread, and revolts broke out in the south and in Tibet. After the T'ang collapse there was great disorder until the establishment of the Sung dynasty in 960.
See E. G. Pulleyblank, The Background of the Rebellion of An Lu-shan (1955); E. O. Reischauer, Ennin's Travels in T'ang China (1955); A. F. Wright and P. C. Twitchett, ed., Perspectives on the T'ang (1973); D. Twitchett, The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 3, 1979); H. J. Wechsler, Offerings of Jade and Silk: Ritual and Symbol in the Legitimation of the T'ang Dynasty (1985); C. Hartman, Han Yu and the T'ang Search for Unity (1986).
tang, in zoology
common name for certain members of the Acanthuridae, a family of mostly small, mainly reef-dwelling tropical fishes with compressed bodies and small mouths and teeth. Other members of the family are known as surgeonfishes and unicornfishes. They have sharp spines on either side of the tail, and many are brightly colored. The tangs include the blue-gray to dark-brown doctorfish, several species known as blue tangs, and the larger and more abundant ocean tang of deep waters. The unicornfishes are named after the hornlike projection found in some species; the whitemargin unicornfish is among the largest members of the family, reaching 39 in. (1 m) in length. The allied spadefishes, which include the batfishes of the Indo-Pacific region, are generally large than the tangs and belong to the family Ephippidae. They are barred in black and white. The Atlantic spadefish, also called angelfish or white angelfish, is valued both as a food and a game fish. The tangs and spadefishes are classified in the phylum Chordata
, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, families Acanthuridae and Ephippidae, respectively.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.
a Chinese imperial dynasty that reigned from 618 to 907. The T’ang Dynasty was founded by Li Yuan. His son, Li Shih-min, united the country in 628, after subduing peasant insurgents and separatist feudal forces. He also strengthened the central authority and improved the organization of the military by instituting the fuping system.
During the reigns of the first T’ang emperors, a system of competitive state examinations was developed, which permitted the rise among the feudal class of an estate of scholars loyal to the imperial court; it was from this estate that members of the bureaucracy and the military elite were chosen. The same era saw the establishment of a system of allotment landowning called the equal-field system, which made it possible for the central government to regulate taxation.
A growing internal struggle among feudal groups resulted in a palace coup at the end of Emperor Li Chih’s reign (650–683). The emperor’s wife, Wu Tse-t’ien, seized power and ruled the country herself from 684 to 705. Until the middle of the eighth century, the T’ang Dynasty carried out an aggressive foreign policy that led to war and the seizure of neighboring lands. Later, the empire encountered resistance from the states of Nan Chao and T’ufan (Tibet) and the Uighur Khanate.
As the power of the dynasty waned in the middle of the eighth century, the power of the military governors (the chieh-tu-shih) increased—to the point where one governor, An Lu-shan, openly revolted. The dynasty’s dominance was ultimately broken by a peasant uprising led by Huang Ch’ao and his successors and by a struggle among various groups of the ruling class. Li Chu (904–907), the last T’ang emperor, was overthrown by the military commander Chu Wen. Earlier, Chu Wen, one of the leaders of the peasant uprising, had betrayed Huang Ch’ao by aligning himself with the emperor.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
the pointed end of a tool, such as a chisel, file, knife, etc., which is fitted into a handle, shaft, or stock
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005