A; the mean diameter of distal convoluted tubule
, B; the mean diameter of proximal convoluted tubule
C; the mean diameter of glomerulus.
Insufficient seric levels of native vitamin D (D3 or D2), which are later, filtered in the glomeruli and received by the megalin receptors in the proximal convoluted tubule
, can contribute significantly to lower levels of active vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D).
Kidney injury was examined using the modified 0-5 Jablonski grading scale under a light microscope: 0 represents normal; 1 represents occasional degeneration and necrosis of individual cells; 2 represents degenerative cells and necrosis of individual tubules; 3 represents degeneration and necrosis of all cells in adjacent proximal convoluted tubules
with survival of surrounding tubules; 4 represents necrosis confined to the distal third of the proximal convoluted tubules
, with a band of necrosis extending across the inner cortex; and 5 represents necrosis affecting all the three segments of the proximal convoluted tubules
, as described previously .
Amiloride, which is a potassium-sparing diuretic that acts as a direct antagonist of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the distal convoluted tubules
, has also been successfully used in pregnancy without report of any adverse outcomes .
Also, comparing to the control animals, we revealed the increasing of the average size of epithelian cells of the proximal convoluted tubule
So the main site of gentamicin induced renal damage can be recognized as tubular structure, especially proximal convoluted tubules
Hypomagnesemia in GS is the consequence of a reduced expression of the epithelial Mg + transport channel TRPM6 in the distal convoluted tubule
, which results in decreased magnesium reabsorption (10).
On the other hand the convoluted tubule
showed deformity of the nuclei mitochondria and the enfolding of the basement membrane.
Differential toxicity of human Bence-Jones proteins in the rat proximal convoluted tubule
Although the early distal convoluted tubule
also serves as a diluting segment, some of the transporters differ from those in the thick ascending limb.
Physiologically, PTH acts on distal convoluted tubule
of nephron to increase calcium retention.
The proximal convoluted tubules
, the distal convoluted tubule
and the renal corpuscles with glomerulus and glomerular capsule are very clear and prominent (Fig.