cooking


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cooking,

the process of using heat to prepare foods for consumption.

Many common cooking methods involve the use of oil. Frying is cooking in hot oil; sautéing is cooking in a small amount of oil; stir-frying is a Chinese technique of frying quickly in small amounts of oil in a wok; deep frying is completely submerging the food in large amounts of fat. As cooks become more health conscious, preparing foods in oil has become less desirable. With the advent of nonstick cookware, sautéing can be done at lower heats using vegetable broth and fruit juices instead of oil.

Stewing refers to cooking slowly in a small amount of liquid in a closed container. Slow stewing tenderizes tough cuts of meat and allows flavors to mingle. Another slow-cooking method is braising, in which meat is first browned, then cooked slowly in a small amount of liquid in a covered pan. Poaching is cooking food in liquid below the boiling point, steaming is cooking food that has been placed above boiling water. Sous vide (so͞o vēd) refers to preparing food in vacuum-sealed plastic bags to infuse it with seasonings and then slowly poaching it in the bag at a very low heat. Sous vide is sometimes used in conjunction with other techniques, and sometimes food is vacuum-sealed to alter it and not cooked.

Roasting means baking in hot dry air, generally in an oven. Baking refers to cooking in an oven and differs from roasting mainly in its reference to the type of food cooked—for example, one bakes a cake, but roasts a chicken. Broiling means to cook by direct exposure to heat, while barbecueing means cooking marinated food by grilling.

Dining with others is one of the most common and frequent social activities. It can involve a family dinner, a meal with friends, or form part of a ceremony or celebration, such as a wedding or holiday. In the United States, cooking has been influenced by the variety of regional and immigrant cuisines and customs (see dietdiet,
food and drink regularly consumed for nourishment. Nutritionists generally recommend eating a wide variety of foods; however, some groups of people survive on a very limited diet.
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). After World War II, cooking and dining in the United States took on aspects of an art form and wine grew in popularity. More and more people studied cooking in schools, watched how-to programs on television, and read specialty magazines and cookbooks. In fact, cookbooks as a group outsell any other kind of book except for religious works. Standard cookbooks include Fannie Farmer's Boston Cooking School Cookbook (1896) and Irma Rombauer's Joy of Cooking (1931), both of which have gone a number of subsequent editions.

See also nutritionnutrition,
study of the materials that nourish an organism and of the manner in which the separate components are used for maintenance, repair, growth, and reproduction. Nutrition is achieved in various ways by different forms of life.
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.

Bibliography

See H. McGee, On Food and Cooking (1984, rev. ed. 2004); J. Horn, Cooking A to Z (1988); S. Gershoff, The Tufts University Guide to Total Nutrition (1990); P. P. Bober, Art, Culture and Cuisine: Ancient and Medieval Gastronomy (1997); S. Pinkard, A Revolution in Taste: The Rise of French Cuisine, 1650–1800 (2008); The Joy of Cooking (75th anniversary ed. 2006); N. Myhrvold et al., Modernist Cuisine: The Art and Science of Cooking (2011).

References in periodicals archive ?
However, while offering clean cooking solutions contribute to achieving some of the SDGs , a new report by Hivos and World Future Council Beyond Fire: How to achieve electric cooking states that these solutions are only good in the interim but are 'neither a truly long term nor a truly sustainable solution to the challenge of cooking'.
As our staple food, rice deserves the best cooking possible, [which] is, with the help of the revolutionary spherical pot-rice cookers from Tefal, convenient and versatile cooking,' said Julie Lim, vice president for business development of Collins International Trading Corp., Tefal's exclusive distributor of SDA in the Philippines.
The teams had collected 267 samples of cooking oil and ghee for laboratory test from open market in the presence of company's representatives by following blind-sampling method throughout the province.
The participants would discover how easy Chinese cooking can be and also learn how to create restaurant quality dishes and work together with other students in a fun, hands-on environment led by Chinese Master Chef.
Whether it's cooking simple pasta dishes or preparing a complete four-course meal, Tecnogas integrates Italian expertise and technology with its quality cooking appliances built only with top of the line materials that are designed to deliver excellent cooking results.
Of special note is that throughout "Six Basic Cooking Techniques", myth-busting 'Students Ask and Chefs Say' columns feature pearls of indispensable kitchen wisdom (such as why you should never mince basil, mint, or sage; why blanching vegetables is better than steaming; what are the three key flavors that make all food taste better; and more).
At the Taste of Dubai weekend we had the Lurpak Cooking Studio where I showcased 6 new Cook's Range recipes and did over 12 hours of live cooking demonstrations!
Poor Gemma actually failed her cooking GCSE and regularly burns toast, so her family and friends pitch in to make sure she and her girls don't go hungry by bringing food over for her daily.
"Cooking is a core life skill and our aim is to give everyone the opportunity to learn to cook and enjoy good food.
It's all about being organised and preparing beforehand, according to Bernie Plaisted, a chef at The Cook School in Kilmarnock, who run classes for all types of cooking.
The America's Test Kitchen Cooking School Cookbook offers a comprehensive guide to home cooking, packing over eight hundred pages with some 600 recipes and over two thousand photos in four-color.
I started cooking traditional Ramadan dishes when I was 17.