Females may lay their eggs immediately or in the months after copulation
, and the oviposition strategies seem to be related to the length of the ovipositor.
Most courtships in the laboratory appear to end in failure with only about 7% of all courtships resulting in copulation
. Nearly 25% of the females do not copulate even though some are courted more than 65 times; of the females that do copulate, nearly 50% are courted by at least five different males.
The patterns of sperm precedence, the increased frequency of starting and stopping copulation
with less actual time spent in copula of second males, suggests that the second males could not successfully copulate.
Rubbing also occurred after copulation
. In one of five copulations
male vibrated his legs III briefly as in Epilancha borealis.
were common within pairs that mated.
The potential costs to copulation
have been established relatively well.
Thus, future studies that aim to assess the maximum reproductive potential of species under given circumstances should take into consideration the rate of effective fertilization, number of copulations
and pupal weight.
Banana-fed males significantly exceeded the number of copulations
achieved by males from T strain, while males from B and C strains were equally successful.
They then "project" their penises and each insert them into the other's vagina and start copulation
The duration of copulations
ranged from 27 to 43 min for A.
In Cephalodesmius however, there are several copulations
during nesting which suggests that this may play a role in the maturation of the female, though we cannot dismiss the possibility of sperm conflict with other males with whom the female has mated previously or the possibility that this is a vestigial behavior resulting from phylogenetic inertia.
enhance the risk of predation and parasitism, but those have also several advantages (Torres-Vila et al.