24 and 29), the mesoscutum at least in the anterior half coriaceous
(mesoscutum entirely smooth and shiny in Acraspis and Cynips, Figs.
Leaves indistinguishable from the scape bracts, forming a lax rosette before anthesis but rosette soon disappearing due to the early elongation of the stem and absent at anthesis; sheaths inconspicuous; blades narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, ending in an acicular and pungent spine, 11-18 cm long, 2.2-3.3 cm wide at base, suberect-recurved to subspreading, coriaceous
, canaliculate, densely and coarsely adpressed white-lepidote near the base and glabrous toward the apex on both sides, but adaxially sometimes completely glabrous, abaxially nerved, greenish-red to dark red, margins laxly spinose, spines subtriangular, complanate, distinctly antrorse-uncinate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, 1-2 mm wide at base, 7-15 mm apart.
Leaves 9-13, mostly basal; blades 55-105 cm long, 5-15 mm wide, flat to M-shaped, coriaceous
, glabrous, the margins antrorsely scabrous.
The acacias, in particular, share features in common with the majority of trees of these formations through morphological convergence: coiled trunks, corky bark, xeromorphic and coriaceous
leaves, and spines on the trunks that prevent grazing by herbivores.
Mesoscutum imbricate to coriaceous
. Scutellum coriaceous
, with a longitudinal median glabrate strip bordered by strong setae.
When a range of intraspecific variation is reported (e.g., lateral portion of pronotum coriaceous
to rugulose), the most common condition is the first condition mentioned (i.e., coriaceous
) except for color.
10, spread, coriaceous
, linear to linear-lanceolate, the two lowermost sheath-like, the eight uppermost 18-36 x 1.2-2.3 cm, articulate, articulation 2-4 cm from the apex of the pseudobulb, apex acuminate.
Opposite leaves, rare 3-verticillate; simple, coriaceous
or rigid-chartaceous; venation camptodromous-brochidodromous or mix craspedodromous.
Jamesonia, with distinctly coriaceous
leaves and highly reduced pinnae representing specialization to the paramo habitat, was believed to be derived from Eriosorus, which has variously pinnate leaves (Tryon 1962, 1970).
Among the Doryctinae, the genus Heredius is distinguished by the coriaceous
or acinose frons and vertex (Marsh, 2002).
Inflorescence bipinnate to laxly tripinnate with 6 to 12 primary branches, the main axis flexuose; primary bracts elliptic, acute, 25-40 x 5-9 mm, somewhat cucculate, nerved, sparsely punctate-lepidote, red, all much shorter than the branches; primary branches with a slender 2-10 mm peduncle, the lowest primary branches rarely with up to 6 subsessile 2 to 10-flowered secondary branches, otherwise the primary branches cylindrical, 4-12 cm long, 8 to 15-flowered; floral bracts elliptic, acute, 13-17 mm long, somewhat cucculate, thin coriaceous
, nerved, the proximal ones somewhat carinate, spreading at anthesis usually red or rarely red tipped white or yellow.
40 cm in diameter; leaf sheaths elliptic, 7-10 cm long, 4-5 cm wide, glabrous and dark brown adaxially, glabrous and light brown abaxially; leaf blades narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 37-55 cm long, 1.3-1.7 cm wide at the widest part, coriaceous
, lepidote, tapering to a long filiform and acuminate apex, margins involute; inflorescence erect, simple, to 75 cm long; scape 29-50 cm long, erect, stout, ca.