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paper, thin, flat sheet or tissue made usually from plant fiber but also from rags and other fibrous materials. It is used principally for printing and writing on but has many other applications. The term also includes various types of paperboard, such as cardboard and wallboard.

The Formulation of Paper

A quarter to a third of most new paper is made from waste paper. The body of paper is made up of matted cellulose fibers—since c.1860 derived principally from wood. Rags, mostly cotton cuttings from textile and garment factories, are used to make fine stationery and for such purposes as cigarette paper. For other special papers, or where wood is not available, manufacturers may use pressed sugarcane, bamboo, manila rope, cereal straws, esparto grass, or other fibers.

Preparation from Wood Pulp

Most paper is made from wood pulp. Mechanical pulp, or groundwood, prepared by grinding the wood, is used to make newsprint, tissue, towel, and other inexpensive papers. For paper whose whiteness is important, a chemical pulp must be prepared. Lignin, which holds wood fibers together, turns yellow in sunlight and therefore must be removed by alternating treatments with acid and alkaline solutions. The wood pulp, boiled under pressure and treated to dissolve the lignin binder, is thus turned into cellulose fiber. The mixture is then washed and bleached; because the resulting pulp is more than 90% water, the water is usually treated before mixing.

Once the wood pulp has been treated, washed, bleached, screened, and beaten, it is blended to achieve the characteristics required for the intended use. The pulp, suspended in water, is poured over a wire screen in one of two machines that differ mainly in the form of the screen: a belt screen is used in the Fourdrinier machine and a cylindrical one in the cylinder machine. As water drains through the screen, a layer of fibers forms, which in the Fourdrinier is shaken to turn the fibers in different directions so that they mat. A wet felt belt pressed against the screen picks up the paper for feeding through sets of drying rollers. During this stage a rubber roller may be used to imprint a watermark. At the end of the process the paper is passed through a calender (stack of iron rollers), which presses the paper and smooths its surface. Fillers—chiefly clay or starch—are used to improve the printing, texture, and wet and dry strength of paper and to produce other special properties.

Treatment for Special Properties

Book paper is any kind of printing paper except newsprint; in order to prevent rapid deterioration of the paper through a reaction between the acids in the pulp mixture and the humidity in the air, modern book paper is further treated to make it acid-free. For the best reproduction of illustrations, especially halftones, book paper is coated with a layer of mineral pigment, usually clay, mixed with an adhesive. All writing papers are “sized”; i.e., a water-resistant substance such as rosin is added to the pulp to prevent the spreading of writing ink. Hanging paper, or wallpaper, is soft and bulky; it is rosin-sized for water resistance and coated to take a printed design. Bag and wrapping papers are made of kraft paper, the product of the sulfate process, because of its strength.

The Introduction of Paper

Paper is believed to have been invented by Ts'ai Lun c.105 in China, where it reached an advanced state of development. Chinese paper was a mixture of bark and hemp. Papermaking spread to Japan c.610 and to Samarkand c.751, whence it was introduced by the Arabs into Egypt c.900 and by the Moors into Spain at Játiva c.1150. Mills were established in Italy c.1276; in France, c.1348; in Germany, 1390; and in England, 1495. European paper was usually made of flax and hemp. Primitive bark paper had been made in Mexico and Central America in pre-Columbian times. Paper was first produced in the American colonies in 1690 by William Rittenhouse at Germantown.


See J. P. Casey, Pulp and Paper (3d ed., 4 vol., 1983); J. R. Lavigne, Pulp and Paper Dictionary (1986); N. A. Basbanes, On Paper (2013).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a mixture of a finely ground (smaller than 1–0.5 mm) useful mineral and water. It is formed during such processes as the grinding of useful minerals before concentration, hydraulic mining, and hydraulic transport.

The density of pulp (the weight ratio between solid and liquid phases) and the number of particle-size fractions present determine the viscosity, which increases with an increase in density and in the number of particle-size fractions (in micron dimensions). The two factors also determine the sedimentation rate, which decreases with an increase in pulp density and with an increase in the fine particles present.



the principal mass of the spleen. A distinction is made between red pulp, which consists of reticular tissue whose loops contain mostly red blood cells, and white pulp, which consists of reticular tissue with lymphoid cells.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A mass of soft spongy tissue in the interior of an organ.
The soft succulent portion of a fruit.
The cellulosic material produced by reducing wood mechanically or chemically and used in making paper and cellulose products. Also known as wood pulp.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. soft or fleshy plant tissue, such as the succulent part of a fleshy fruit
2. Dentistry the soft innermost part of a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
There were significantly more VEGF+ cells in the coronal pulp of immature teeth than those of mature teeth (P=0.04), but there was no significant difference in the expression in the middle regions (P=0.27).
The total VEGF expression in the apical papilla was not significantly different from the total amount of protein observed in the coronal pulp (P=0.17).
VEGFR2 was expressed in the apical CRZ and the apical papilla where the expression was approximately half of that of the coronal pulp in immature teeth (Table 2).
The increased vascularity and angiogenic activity observed in the coronal pulp compared with the radicular pulp for both tooth types may in part explain the favourable healing that frequently follows stepwise caries excavation and direct pulp capping (23,27).
The pulp chamber was opened with a sterile high speed diamond bur and the coronal pulp tissue was removed by a sharp spoon excavator and the chamber was then irrigated with sterile saline solution.
Group 2--After coronal pulp removal, a cotton pellet was dipped in ABS solution, squeezed dry and placed on the pulp tissues for 10-15 seconds then observed for complete haemostasis during one minute.
In this study, 1:5 dilution of Buckley's FC was used and the coronal pulp chamber was filled with ZOE according to the clinical guidelines presented by AAPD [2009].
Coronal pulps were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies raised against TRPV1 and either the general neuronal marker, protein gene-product 9.5 or alpha smooth muscle actin in conjunction with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 lectin to fully label the pulp vasculature.
The teeth of patients in Group F were treated by coronal pulp amputation followed by a five minute application of a 20% Buckley's formocresol solution while the teeth of patients in Group C were treated by coronal pulp amputation hemostasis followed by placement of calcium hydroxide powder containing 99% calcium hydroxide (Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company Ltd Poole Dorset UK) to the radicular pulp stumps.
Coronal pulp amputation was achieved with small and medium slow-speed sterile round burs taking care to avoid cutting the pulp chamber floor.
Partial pulpotomies are preferable to cervical pulpotomies in molar teeth as they allow preservation of the cell rich coronal pulp tissue, providing a better healing potential; physiologic apposition of dentine in the cervical area is maintained (which is lost and dentinal walls weakened in cervical pulpotomy), a subsequent root canal treatment is not usually necessary but if required access can be gained more readily to the canals.