coronary artery disease

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Related to coronary artery disease: atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction

coronary artery disease,

condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death. Men are affected about four times as frequently as women; before the age of 40 the ratio is eight to one. Other predisposing factors are lack of blood supply; spasms in the coronary vessels, which cause and/or are caused by hypertension; diabetes; high cholesterol levels; adverse physical reactions to mental stress; and heavy cigarette smoking. The primary symptom is angina pectorisangina pectoris
, condition characterized by chest pain that occurs when the muscles of the heart receive an insufficient supply of oxygen. This results when the arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood are narrowed by arteriosclerosis.
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, a pain that radiates in the upper left quadrant of the body due to the lack of oxygen reaching the heart. A myocardial infarctioninfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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 (heart attack) is precipitated when the interior passage of an artery, usually already narrowed by atherosclerosis (see arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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), is completely blocked by thrombosisthrombosis
, obstruction of an artery or vein by a blood clot (thrombus). Arterial thrombosis is generally more serious because the supply of oxygen and nutrition to an area of the body is halted.
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 (blood clot) or arterial plaque.

Nitroglycerin, beta-blockersbeta-blocker
or beta-adrenergic blocking agent
, drug that reduces the symptoms connected with hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, migraine headaches, and other disorders related to the sympathetic nervous system.
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, and calcium-channel blockerscalcium-channel blocker,
any of a class of drugs used in treating hypertension, angina pectoris, and certain arrhythmias. They prevent the calcium ions needed for muscle contraction from entering the cells of smooth and cardiac muscle.
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 are often used for control of angina. Aspirin, with its ability to inhibit blood clots, cholesterol-lowering drugs (e.g., simvastatin), and estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women all appear to have a protective effect against eventual heart attack. If the buildup of plaque has progressed, an invasive or surgical procedure is often necessary, although a combination of a strict low-fat diet, stress management, and exercise has been found to reverse the disease. The most common procedure is angioplastyangioplasty
, any surgical repair of a blood vessel, especially balloon angioplasty or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, a treatment of coronary artery disease.
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 with a balloon catheter. The use of the balloon catheter often can be complicated by cracks or weakening of the walls of the vessels and may lead to rapid reclogging of the vessel. Another procedure is coronary artery bypass surgery, which splices veins or internal mammary arteries to the affected coronary artery in order to bypass the atherosclerotic blockage and supply blood to the heart muscle. A cold laser may be used to remove atherosclerotic plaques with bursts of ultraviolet light. It does little damage to the arteries and leaves the walls of the vessels smooth, without the burning and scarring created by hot lasers. Mechanical cutting devices, called atherotomes, are sometimes to ream atherosclerotic plaque material from the vessel in a procedure called atherectomy.

References in periodicals archive ?
KEY WORDS: Interleukin-6, -174G>C, -572G>C, -597G>A, Polymorphism, Coronary artery disease.
To determine the overall prevalence of significant coronary artery disease in patients with valvular heart disease undergoing valve surgery.
Patients presenting to the Emergency and out-patient department of the hospital with diagnosis of some form of coronary artery disease were included for the study.
First, the lifetime association between major depression and coronary artery disease in this sample was modest and did not differ substantially in men and women.
Coronary artery disease affects more than 20 million Americans, and the average American has a 20 percent likelihood of this occurring before the age of 60.
Patients should then have a risk assessment for coronary artery disease that would include a history and physical, focused on diabetes, smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol" he said.
This data driven report contains over 25 links to online copies of actual coronary artery disease deals and contract documents as submitted to the Securities Exchange Commission by companies and their partners, where available.
Dietary changes in the general population aimed at preventing coronary artery disease accounted for only about 25 percent of the drop between 1980 and 1990, said the study's lead author, Dr.
Agatston counters that ultrafast CT scanning is accurate enough to rule out coronary artery disease in many patients.
A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).
Despite risks, it has been well-accepted that anyone with coronary artery disease should take a very small dose of daily aspirin to reduce the risk of a heart attack.
We had found before that high homocysteine is associated with early coronary artery disease and plays a role in 12 percent of all early familial cases," says study investigator Paul N.

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