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ceremony of crowning and anointing a sovereign on his or her accession to the throne. Although a public ceremony inaugurating a new king or chief had long existed, a new religious service was added when Europe became Christianized. The service, derived from Old Testament accounts of the anointing of SaulSaul,
first king of the ancient Hebrews. He was a Benjamite and anointed king by Samuel. Saul's territory was probably limited to the hill country of Judah and the region to the north, and his proximity to the Philistines brought him into constant conflict with them.
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 and DavidDavid,
d. c.970 B.C., king of ancient Israel (c.1010–970 B.C.), successor of Saul. The Book of First Samuel introduces him as the youngest of eight sons who is anointed king by Samuel to replace Saul, who had been deemed a failure.
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 by Samuel, helped to alter the concept of kingship, because anointment was thought to endow a prince with divine blessing and some degree of priestly (possibly even divine) character.

In England, from the coronation (973) of Edgar, the ceremony included a coronation oath, anointment, investiture, enthronement, and homage. The pageantry of the English coronation, which since 1066 has taken place in Westminster AbbeyWestminster Abbey,
originally the abbey church of a Benedictine monastery (closed in 1539) in London. One of England's most important Gothic structures, it is also a national shrine. The first church on the site is believed to date from early in the 7th cent.
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, is still that of medieval times. Kings of Scotland were crowned at SconeScone
, village, Perth and Kinross, central Scotland. Old Scone, west of the modern village of New Scone, was the repository of the Coronation Stone (see under coronation) and the coronation place of Scottish kings from Kenneth I to Charles II.
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 on the Coronation Stone, which, according to tradition, is the stone Jacob used at Bethel; it was the Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny, of early kings of Ireland, and, taken to Scotland, was used in coronation ceremonies there. In 1296 Edward I took the stone to Westminster, where it was under the seat of the coronation chair until 1996, when it was returned to Scotland and displayed in Edinburgh Castle.

In France, Pepin the Short, first king of the Carolingian line (see CarolingiansCarolingians
, dynasty of Frankish rulers, founded in the 7th cent. by Pepin of Landen, who, as mayor of the palace, ruled the East Frankish Kingdom of Austrasia for Dagobert I.
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, was twice anointed by popes, partly to legitimize his supersession of the Merovingian dynasty (see MerovingiansMerovingians,
dynasty of Frankish kings, descended, according to tradition, from Merovech, chief of the Salian Franks, whose son was Childeric I and whose grandson was Clovis I, the founder of the Frankish monarchy.
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). Later the French coronation came to resemble the English form, which was probably introduced into France in the 10th cent. The custom whereby the Holy Roman emperor was crowned by the pope dates from the coronation of CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
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 on Christmas Day, 800. The anointing of the emperor by the pope was instituted by Louis I in 816. In 1804, Napoleon I brought Pope Pius VII to Paris to crown him in Notre Dame cathedral; but, in a famous episode, he seized the crown from the pope's hands and crowned himself.


the act or ceremony of crowning a monarch
References in periodicals archive ?
Schizoporella floridana (Superfamily Schizoporelloidea): Nonfeeding Coronate Larva
Despite the differences in the relative positions of the apical disc and pyriform complex between buguliform larvae and ascophoran coronate larvae, their nervous system morphologies are more conserved.
Compared to the coronate larvae of ascophoran bryozoans, vesiculariform larvae are elongated in the aboral-oral axis, and the positions of the paraxial nerve cords and nerve nodule (Fig.
As described in Santagata (2008), this species does not have any definitive cell types that can be classified as coronate or oral ciliated cells.
Among ascophoran coronate larvae, infracoronal sensory neurons are still common in the form of balancers and sometimes ocelli (data presented here, and in Zimmer and Woollacott, 1989a, for Watersipora arcuata).
indentations (CC) of surrounding tissue Larval type Region of larval body Ascophoran coronate (2), (4) Apical disc CR and NP Bordering the oral groove BC Adjacent to Ciliary whorls (SC, IC, IFC) propulsive ciliary fields Ciliated tufts (IC) BR (IFC) Potential photosensory Ciliary whorls (SC, IC,IFC)/ neurons/Co-option of Pigmented cup (SC, cc, IFC) and surrounding tissue lens-like structures (SC, IFC) (1) Additional data gathered from Stricker et al.
The coronate larvae of Alcyonidium gelatinosum (larva formerly attributed to A.
Although the precise intercoronal positions of ascophoran coronate larvae are species-specific and vary along with differences in the number of coronal cells the most common positions for pigment cup ocelli are between the first pair of coronal cells (position 111), an anterolateral supracoronal pair near coronal cells 7 and 8, and a posterolateral supracoronal pair near coronal cells 10 and 11.
Therefore the serotonergic nervous system of cyphonautes and ascophoran coronate larvae of cheilostomes are essentially identical (except for the elaboration of particular sensory structures) and are not heterogenic as described by Wanninger et al.
Coronate medusae, rhopalonematids, and other robust animals were caught in pristine condition and could be maintained alive and swimming for several days in 20-1 buckets in a 5[degrees]C refrigerator.
vanhoeffeni, although the coronate medusae of other genera had readily measurable CS activities.
The most notable exceptions are the meso- and bathypelagic coronate medusae.