corpus callosum

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corpus callosum:

see brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Corpus Callosum


in placental mammals and man, the aggregation of nerve fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres.

The corpus callosum develops in the higher mammals from the commissure of the mantle (present in lung-fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and cloacal mammals) in connection with the strong development of the cerebral cortex. The fibers of the corpus callosum run mostly in a transverse direction, connecting and exchanging neural impulses between matching areas of the hemispheres. Therefore, both hemispheres together constitute a single unit. Fibers connecting different gyri in the two hemispheres also pass through the corpus callosum (for example, frontal with parietal or occipital). The fibers of the corpus callosum also send collaterals (associative fibers) to different parts of the same hemisphere.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

corpus callosum

[′kȯr·pəs kə′lō·səm]
A band of nerve tissue connecting the cerebral hemispheres in humans and higher mammals.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Prefrontal Corpus Callosum Structure Differentiated Motor Outcome Experienced by People with Severe Upper Limb Impairment.
Furthermore, with and without NSC-GFP transplantation, Shh-Tom labeling of axons appeared similar even in the corpus callosum and cingulum, which are regions with axon damage in this TBI model (Figure S3).
Caption: FIGURE 4: Comparison between the corpus callosum tracts obtained with different software: nordicBrainEx (a) and StealthViz (b).
Protein extract from corpus callosum were centrifuged at 560 g for 5 min; then stored at -20[degrees]C.
Normal 10.14% Hydrocephalus/ventriculomegaly 25.36% Chiari malformation 3.4% Dandy-Walker malformation 5.7% Holoprosencephaly 2.3% Intracranial masses Cysts 3.4% Microcephaly 1.1% Corpus callosum agenesis 6.9% Nonspecific 2.3% Soft-tissue masses 2.3% Hemivertebra 1.1% Diaphragmatic hernia 1.1% Cardiac rhabdomyoma 1.1 Pulmonary sequestration 1.1 Note: Table made from pie chart.
Corpus callosum signal intensity in patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder.
Containing as many as 200 million nerve fibers, the corpus callosum enables communication between the brain's left and right hemispheres, helping to integrate signals for processes that involve both hemispheres, such as physical coordination and use of language.
Cytotoxic Lesions of the Corpus Callosum That Show Restricted Diffusion: Mechanisms, Causes, and Manifestations.
One of the largest differences identified by the team was in an area of the brain called the corpus callosum. The MRI results suggested there was less branching along these fibres, so the connections between the left and right sides of the brain were less efficient in young people.
Fetal MRI showed agenesis of the corpus callosum, ventriculomegaly, hypotelorism, and bilateral congenital cataracts.