corrupt practices


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corrupt practices,

in politics, fraud connected with elections. The term also refers to various offenses by public officials, including bribery, the sale of offices, granting of public contracts to favored firms or individuals, and granting of land or franchises in return for monetary rewards. Election fraud may consist of efforts to influence or intimidate the voter or to tamper with the official ballotballot,
means of voting for candidates for office. The choice may be indicated on or by the ballot forms themselves—e.g., colored balls (hence the term ballot, which is derived from the Italian ballotta,
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 or election count. To eliminate these practices nearly all democratic nations have passed laws that attempt to safeguard the honesty of political campaigns, elections, and officials. In Great Britain the Acts of 1883 and 1918, frequently amended, define election abuses and limit political spending by or on behalf of candidates for Parliament. In the United States individual states have their own election laws, preceding federal statutes. In large cities of the United States election fraud has historically been associated with political machines (see bossismbossism,
in U.S. history, system of political control centering about a single powerful figure (the boss) and a complex organization of lesser figures (the machine) bound together by reciprocity in promoting financial and social self-interest.
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). On the federal level, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, the Hatch Act of 1940, parts of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, and the campaign financing legislation of 1974 were attempts to limit campaign spending and the size of contributions. Requiring public disclosure and providing public funding of the presidential campaign were in response to abuses connected with secret campaign funds used in the 1972 presidential election (see Watergate affairWatergate affair,
in U.S. history, series of scandals involving the administration of President Richard M. Nixon; more specifically, the burglarizing of the Democratic party national headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.
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). Subsequently, the Senate and the House established ethics committees and codes of conduct, and required public accounting of income and campaign contributions. The Ethics Act of 1978 and the stricter Government Ethics Reform Act of 1989 bar top government officials from lobbying private corporations or other governments for specified periods after leaving office. The latter act also bars former executive branch officials, congressmen, and their staff members from trying to influence senior employees in their former branches for one year after they leave office. These reforms, however, have not prevented the proliferation of Political Action Committees, a marked increase in campaign spending, and the creative use of loopholes, such as "soft money" for party-building, with no contribution limits. The term "corrupt practices" has also been applied to businesses and labor unions, in the former case for price fixing, and in the latter for misappropriation of funds or the rigging of union elections.

Bibliography

See G. Thayer, Who Shakes the Money Tree? American Campaign Financing Practices from 1789 to the Present (1973); M. Clarke, ed., Corruption (1984); W. J. Chambliss, On the Take (2d ed. 1988); P. M. Stern, The Best Congress Money Can Buy (1988); Congressional Quarterly Editorial Research Reports (1989); M. P. and P. Glazer, The Whistleblowers (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
PESHAWAR -- The Regional Board Meeting (RBM) of National Accountability Bureau (NAB) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was held under the chairmanship of Farmanullah Khan, here Director General in the board authorized inquiry against employees of Directorate of Health Services, FATA and others regarding corruption and corrupt practices.
PESHAWAR -- The National Accountability Bureau (NAB) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has approved inquiries against officers of the FATA Secretariat, Malakand finance department and Peshawar Cantonment Board for their alleged misappropriation of funds reserved for a polio programme and other corrupt practices.
MULTAN -- Additional Chief Engineer MEPCO Multan Circle Mohammad Umer Lodhi dismissed a meter reader of Hassan Parwana sub division over corrupt practices here on Wednesday.
CCT/ABJ/03/12) in discharge of his official duties and thereby committed an offence contrary to Section 12(1)(a) and (b) of the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act, 2003.
6713) and the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (Republic Act No.
ISLAMABAD -- National Accountability Bureau Rawalpindi has arrested accused Muzaffar Nishat, a proclaimed offender involved in corruption and corrupt practices.
He insisted that the incidence of corrupt practices had peaked in the province.
The NAB chief has previously announced plans to hear complaints of the public relating to corruption and corrupt practices at the NAB Headquarters on the last Thursday of every month.
Cain has been named chief of the Enforcement Division's national specialized Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) Unit that focuses on violations of the anti-bribery provisions of the federal securities laws.
PESHAWAR -- NAB Khyber Pakhtunkhwa arrested Alamgir Khan Patwari involved in corruption and corrupt practices during acquisition of 400 Kanal Land for Worker Welfare Board at Daag Ismail Khel District Nowshera causing huge loss of more than Rs 148.
Global bankers want to avoid charges of money laundering, tax evasion or violations of the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act by favoring Chinese business and political leaders or their relatives.
The mechanism of confiscation was introduced in early Islamic states with the purpose of punishing those who embezzled, abused their duties, used their public position to acquire wealth, took bribes or resorted to corrupt practices.