corruption


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corruption

The altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware or software failure or power failure. See data recovery and corrupted file.

corruption

‘the abandonment of expected standards of behaviour by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage’ (Pinto-Duschinsky, 1987). One problem with such a definition is that in many societies corrupt practices, as specified by legal or administrative rules, may often be customary and widely accepted as normal behaviour. Such behaviour, as in some Third World countries or command economies, may be essential for the achievement of socially necessary outcomes. Nor is corruption confined to less-developed or state-socialist economies, as scandals such as the Watergate Affair or, in the UK, the Poulson Affair, demonstrate.

Corruption

 

a crime consisting in the direct use by an official of the rights granted to him by virtue of his office for the purpose of personal enrichment. Bribery of officials and graft are also called corruption.

Corruption is known in all forms of the exploitative state, but particularly widespread corruption is inherent in the imperialist state; it is characteristic of the bourgeois state apparatus and parliament, where state and political figures take advantage of their official position to arrange their personal affairs. In characterizing imperialism as parasitic, decaying capitalism, V. I. Lenin pointed to imperialist attributes such as “venality, bribery of enormous dimensions” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 30, pp. 164–65).

One variety of corruption is payment to the election campaign of a candidate for some elective office; after the elections, the elected official makes compensation through various services (granting profitable posts, orders, etc.). Corruption is often linked with lobbying.

Corruption is widespread in the USA. Between 1967 and 1969 the case of Senator T. Dodd was publicized in the USA. The chairman of the Senate Committee on Internal Security, he was convicted of misappropriating $116,000 collected by his supporters in Connecticut for his election campaign fund. In 1969 it was reported in Washington that R. Long, a senator from Louisiana, and D. Brewster, an ex-senator from Maryland, had arranged to have a profitable contract awarded to Frenkil and Baltimore Contractors in return for a large bribe.

Corruption as a formal element of a definition of a crime is provided for in the criminal codes of many bourgeois countries. However, as a rule these crimes remain unpunished.

M. A. KRUTOGOLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The third chapter outlines the measures taken to address corruption risks as well as their socio-economic impact.
Corruption has been defined by the English Dictionary as the act of corrupting or of impairing integrity, virtue or moral principle.
The main aim of the project, entitled 'Creating preconditions for effective co-ordination between legislative and executive anti-corruption bodies and teams in BiH', is to strengthen co-ordination between legislative and executive officials on all levels and enhance the authorities' understanding of relevant jurisdictions, responsibilities, and best practices in the fight against corruption.
Experience over the last quarter-century shows that curbing corruption requires more than just introducing well-designed laws.
In spite of this awareness, it's interesting to ponder how China's contemporary anti- corruption framework imitates the Ming's touring corruption inspector's system.
Corruption has many forms but the major cause of concern are systemic and political corruption which germinate other forms of the menace that eat into the social and economic fiber of a country, besides generating social tensions and hampering its economic progress.
Chairman NAB, Justice (Retd) Javed Iqbal on Tuesday said under the campaign, the Bureau has been engaging different governmental, Non-Governmental Organizations, media and civil society to aware people about ill effects of corruption.
has proved that all are always with us to fight corruption, he added.
At number 35 in the world out of 176 assessed countries, President Khama pointed that Botswana was ahead of some developed countries in the fight against corruption.
Kenya loses approximately a third of her budget - the equivalent of about $6 billion (Sh608 billion) - to corruption every year.
Marking this year's International Anti-Corruption Day, both also released the slogan "United against corruption, for development, peace and security" to urge governments, the private sector and the public to jointly tackle the issue.
GHALANAI/KOHAT -- Speakers at a function here on Saturday called for collective efforts to eliminate corruption.