corruption


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corruption

The altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware or software failure or power failure. See data recovery and corrupted file.

corruption

‘the abandonment of expected standards of behaviour by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage’ (Pinto-Duschinsky, 1987). One problem with such a definition is that in many societies corrupt practices, as specified by legal or administrative rules, may often be customary and widely accepted as normal behaviour. Such behaviour, as in some Third World countries or command economies, may be essential for the achievement of socially necessary outcomes. Nor is corruption confined to less-developed or state-socialist economies, as scandals such as the Watergate Affair or, in the UK, the Poulson Affair, demonstrate.

Corruption

 

a crime consisting in the direct use by an official of the rights granted to him by virtue of his office for the purpose of personal enrichment. Bribery of officials and graft are also called corruption.

Corruption is known in all forms of the exploitative state, but particularly widespread corruption is inherent in the imperialist state; it is characteristic of the bourgeois state apparatus and parliament, where state and political figures take advantage of their official position to arrange their personal affairs. In characterizing imperialism as parasitic, decaying capitalism, V. I. Lenin pointed to imperialist attributes such as “venality, bribery of enormous dimensions” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 30, pp. 164–65).

One variety of corruption is payment to the election campaign of a candidate for some elective office; after the elections, the elected official makes compensation through various services (granting profitable posts, orders, etc.). Corruption is often linked with lobbying.

Corruption is widespread in the USA. Between 1967 and 1969 the case of Senator T. Dodd was publicized in the USA. The chairman of the Senate Committee on Internal Security, he was convicted of misappropriating $116,000 collected by his supporters in Connecticut for his election campaign fund. In 1969 it was reported in Washington that R. Long, a senator from Louisiana, and D. Brewster, an ex-senator from Maryland, had arranged to have a profitable contract awarded to Frenkil and Baltimore Contractors in return for a large bribe.

Corruption as a formal element of a definition of a crime is provided for in the criminal codes of many bourgeois countries. However, as a rule these crimes remain unpunished.

M. A. KRUTOGOLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
According to the responses, corruption and bribery are a secondary problem in the business world in general.
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But after more than a year of seemingly zero activity, Bashir sacked the commission head and did not appoint a replacement, dealing a major blow to demands by the public for more robust investigations of corruption.
In his message on the Day, the secretary-general noted that attitudes towards corruption have changed dramatically.
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Manama, Dec 8 (BNA): Interior Minister Lt-General Shaikh Rashid bin Abdullah Al Khalifa announced that Bahrain's celebration to mark Anti-corruption Day comes as a response to the General Assembly of the United Nations' decision in 2005 to make December 9 a day to raise awareness about the risks of corruption.
The OSCE Presence in Albania and the National Co-ordinator against Corruption launched on 2 December 2015 a renewed public information campaign under the slogan Show the Face of Corruption.
The first edition, launched in 1977, laid the cornerstone for ICC's pioneer role of championing business self-regulation to combat corruption.
International anti-corruption regimes in Europe; between corruption, integration, and culture.