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The altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware or software failure or power failure. See data recovery and corrupted file.
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‘the abandonment of expected standards of behaviour by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage’ (Pinto-Duschinsky, 1987). One problem with such a definition is that in many societies corrupt practices, as specified by legal or administrative rules, may often be customary and widely accepted as normal behaviour. Such behaviour, as in some Third World countries or command economies, may be essential for the achievement of socially necessary outcomes. Nor is corruption confined to less-developed or state-socialist economies, as scandals such as the Watergate Affair or, in the UK, the Poulson Affair, demonstrate.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a crime consisting in the direct use by an official of the rights granted to him by virtue of his office for the purpose of personal enrichment. Bribery of officials and graft are also called corruption.

Corruption is known in all forms of the exploitative state, but particularly widespread corruption is inherent in the imperialist state; it is characteristic of the bourgeois state apparatus and parliament, where state and political figures take advantage of their official position to arrange their personal affairs. In characterizing imperialism as parasitic, decaying capitalism, V. I. Lenin pointed to imperialist attributes such as “venality, bribery of enormous dimensions” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 30, pp. 164–65).

One variety of corruption is payment to the election campaign of a candidate for some elective office; after the elections, the elected official makes compensation through various services (granting profitable posts, orders, etc.). Corruption is often linked with lobbying.

Corruption is widespread in the USA. Between 1967 and 1969 the case of Senator T. Dodd was publicized in the USA. The chairman of the Senate Committee on Internal Security, he was convicted of misappropriating $116,000 collected by his supporters in Connecticut for his election campaign fund. In 1969 it was reported in Washington that R. Long, a senator from Louisiana, and D. Brewster, an ex-senator from Maryland, had arranged to have a profitable contract awarded to Frenkil and Baltimore Contractors in return for a large bribe.

Corruption as a formal element of a definition of a crime is provided for in the criminal codes of many bourgeois countries. However, as a rule these crimes remain unpunished.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Director of the Agency for the Prevention of Corruption and Coordination of the Fight against Corruption in BiH, Hasim A abotic, emphasized that the intention is to introduce fight against corruption in the private sector, as well as the sectoral fight against corruption, bearing in mind the constitutional competencies in BiH.
The deleterious effects of corruption on Ghana's development cannot be overemphasized.
He said the DCEC had partnered with Botswana Social Studies Association (BOSSA) to sponsor debates on issues of corruption. He noted that the directorate went further to publish the first edition of Boammaruri Children Magazine on anti-corruption in May 2018 whose aim was to fight corruption by building integrity and good character in children around Botswana.
It not only raises public awareness about corruption, its causes and possible remedies but also investigates and reports incidences of corruption.
Strict action should be taken against those who involved in corruption.
In political terminology there is no internationally accepted definition of corruption. It depends upon the state of awareness, education, customs and contention, ethics, culture, state of economic development and legal framework over the interest of the society.
Last week's National Prayer Breakfast focused on a "New Dawn" for Kenya one without corruption. This is commendable.
Failure to fight corruption can only harm every community as it enriches a few and impoverishes the majority across all tribes.
In order to eliminate corruption from the anti-corruption department itself, all deputy directors and circle officers have been directed to not take action on any complaint until written permission from higher authorities has been taken.
Speaking on the occasion, Divisional Commissioner Asif Iqbal Ch said that the now society had realized the evil of corruption, and it would be eliminated with the joint efforts of the community.
KARACHI -- Chairman Anti Corruption Mukhtiar Ahmed Soomro said that today Sindh Government observed the International Corruption day, in this regard Chairman Anti-Corruption Establishment Mukhtiar Ahmed Soormro leading a walk/rally which was started from Sindh Secretariat to Karachi Press Club.