corticosterone


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corticosterone

(kôr'təkōstĕr`ōn), steroid hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 secreted by the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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. Classed as a glucocorticoid, corticosterone helps regulate the conversion of amino acids into carbohydrates and glycogen by the liver, and helps stimulate glycogen formation in the tissues. Corticosterone is similar in structure, although somewhat less potent, than the other glucocorticoids cortisolcortisol
or hydrocortisone,
steroid hormone that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal gland. Like cortisone, cortisol is classed as a glucocorticoid; it stimulates liver glycogen formation while it decreases the rate
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 and cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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. It is produced in response to stimulation by the pituitary substance adrenocorticotropic hormoneadrenocorticotropic hormone
, polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisone.
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 (ACTH). In some species, but not in humans, corticosterone is the predominant glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal. It is a precursor in the synthesis of aldosteronealdosterone
, steroid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland. It is the most potent hormone regulating the body's electrolyte balance. Aldosterone acts directly on the kidney to decrease the rate of sodium-ion excretion (with accompanying retention of water), and to
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, another adrenal cortical steroid.

corticosterone

[‚kȯrd·ə′käs·tə‚rōn]
(biochemistry)
C21H30O4 A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex of vertebrates that stimulates carbohydrate synthesis and protein breakdown and is antagonistic to the action of insulin.
References in periodicals archive ?
From studying the brains of mice, researchers found that the PDE4 enzyme was indeed released by corticosterone, and they confirmed that it leads to depression and anxious behavior.A
Resveratrol displayed neuroprotective effects against corticosterone by inhibiting the expression of PDE4.
In in vitro studies, we found that treatment of PC12 cells with corticosterone reduced their viability significantly (P<0.01, n=8) (Figure 5).
All kinds of stressors existing around broiler chickens can be mimicked by corticosterone (Post et al., 2003).
The effects of restraint method, duration of restraint and body weight on plasma concentrations of corticosterone, adrenaline, and noradrenaline are shown in Table 1.
Corticosterone and glucose levels, heart rate, and skin temperature via infrared thermography all have been used to quantify stress.
The Table 3 presented Spearman correlation (r) and p-value (p) of CC16, prolactin, corticosterone, LDH, NF-[kappa]B and c-Jun, Zn, Cu concentration in serum and leukocytes numbers in bells sediments of BALF in rats after 5 days and 10 days of inhalation of WD dust and soluble form of dust (SWD).
Serum concentrations of pregnenolone, 17a hydroxyprogesterone, corticosterone, DHEA, and androstenedione were measured by LC-MS method using an Agilent 1200 Series HPLC system for HPLC (Agilent Technologies Inc., California, USA) and an AB Sciex API5000 tandem mass spectrometer (AB Sciex Pte.
Similarly, compared to the 2 groups without CS, patients with pituitary and ectopic subtypes of CS had higher plasma concentrations of 21-deoxycortisol (pituitary vs both groups, P < 0.0001; ectopic vs reference, P = 0.0004; ectopic vs rule-out, P = 0.0010), corticosterone (pituitary vs both groups, P < 0.0001; ectopic vs reference, P < 0.0001; ectopic vs rule-out, P = 0.0004), and androstenedione (pituitary vs both groups, P < 0.0001; ectopic vs reference, P = 0.0007; ectopic vs rule-out, P = 0.0053), whereas there were no differences for those 3 steroids among patients with adrenal CS and the 2 groups without CS.
Studies in rats have shown that basal HPA axis activity is distinctly increased in lactation due to a rise in nadir levels of corticosterone [17-20], while evening peak concentrations decrease [17, 21, 22], contributing to the flattening of the diurnal rhythm.

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