cortisol


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Related to cortisol: cortisone, Low cortisol

cortisol

(kôr`tĭsôl') or

hydrocortisone,

steroid hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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. Like cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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, cortisol is classed as a glucocorticoid; it stimulates liver glycogen formation while it decreases the rate of glucose utilization in body cells. A main effect of cortisol is to reduce the reserves of protein in all body cells except cells of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It also makes fatty acids available for metabolic use. Cortisol is synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to the stimulating substance adrenocorticotropic hormoneadrenocorticotropic hormone
, polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisone.
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 (ACTH). In turn, cortisol is the major regulator of ACTH production in the pituitary gland; it acts by negative feedback inhibition, i.e., a rise in the level of cortisol in the blood inhibits ACTH secretion by the pituitary. Cortisol, usually referred to as hydrocortisonehydrocortisone
, another name for the steroid hormone cortisol, more especially used to refer to preparations of this hormone used medicinally. Hydrocortisone, introduced in 1952, is more potent than cortisone with respect to medicinal metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects.
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 when used medicinally, is more potent than cortisone with respect to metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. See also corticosteroid drugcorticosteroid drug
, any one of several synthetic or naturally occurring substances with the general chemical structure of steroids. They are used therapeutically to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the
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; steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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.

cortisol

[′kȯrd·ə‚sȯl]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
The release of CRH triggers pituitary production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which then triggers the adrenal cortex to produce DHEA and the glucocorticoid cortisol and the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, typically called "fight or flight" hormones.
Previous studies have linked high cortisol levels in milk to a more nervous temperament in both monkeys and humans.
While research has established that high levels of cortisol are associated with an elevated risk of miscarriage and premature birth, scientists believe that some increase in cortisol levels during pregnancy has a beneficial effect.
In univariate analyses, the mean apnea-hypopnea index, ODI, and nighttime cortisol levels were significantly associated with global deficit scores and particularly with domains of learning, memory, and working memory, said the investigators.
This was the first study to show that high cortisol levels predict death from cardiovascular disease.
Over three years, the researchers found that children with high depressive symptoms and high cortisol levels were seven times more likely to have an episode of clinical depression than the group with low cortisol and low depressive symptoms.
Cortisol levels were measured using saliva samples at three points: awakening, 30 minutes after awakening and evening.
Of the total, nearly 1,858 teenagers with high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels were identified to be at a higher risk of developing clinical depression than the teenagers who had normal cortisol levels and low symptoms of depression.
3) Some women may not show signs of Cushing's syndrome despite increased cortisol levels because they may have increased cortisol binding globulin (CBG) levels or decreased sensitivity to cortisol.
Hair cortisol can be used as a retrospective calendar of cortisol levels (Detterborn et al.
Spiritual Well-Being, Cortisol, and Suicidality in Croatian War Veterans Suffering from PTSD