cortisol


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Related to cortisol: cortisone, Low cortisol

cortisol

(kôr`tĭsôl') or

hydrocortisone,

steroid hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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. Like cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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, cortisol is classed as a glucocorticoid; it stimulates liver glycogen formation while it decreases the rate of glucose utilization in body cells. A main effect of cortisol is to reduce the reserves of protein in all body cells except cells of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It also makes fatty acids available for metabolic use. Cortisol is synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to the stimulating substance adrenocorticotropic hormoneadrenocorticotropic hormone
, polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisone.
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 (ACTH). In turn, cortisol is the major regulator of ACTH production in the pituitary gland; it acts by negative feedback inhibition, i.e., a rise in the level of cortisol in the blood inhibits ACTH secretion by the pituitary. Cortisol, usually referred to as hydrocortisonehydrocortisone
, another name for the steroid hormone cortisol, more especially used to refer to preparations of this hormone used medicinally. Hydrocortisone, introduced in 1952, is more potent than cortisone with respect to medicinal metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects.
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 when used medicinally, is more potent than cortisone with respect to metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. See also corticosteroid drugcorticosteroid drug
, any one of several synthetic or naturally occurring substances with the general chemical structure of steroids. They are used therapeutically to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the
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; steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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.

cortisol

[′kȯrd·ə‚sȯl]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
The following five symptoms of Cortisol deficiency were checked through a questionnaire filled in by the patient: low resistance to stress, fatigue in stressful situations, low blood pressure, sugar cravings, and allergic reactions (skin, ENT, and/or asthma).
The laboratory tests checking for diagnosis of Cortisol deficiency included serum-free Cortisol, 24-hour urinary-free Cortisol, and 24-hour urinary 17-hydroxysteroids (i.
All the samples were later stored at -20[degrees]C until determination of cortisol level was done.
The researchers found that higher exposure to cortisol may signal the fetus to adapt in ways that help survival, but don't help health and longevity.
6,7] During stress, the activation of HPA axis is highlighted by increased corticotrophin release from the pituitary gland, [10] enhanced adrenal secretory activity, [11,12] and high plasma cortisol levels However, whether endogenous glucocorticoid levels are adequate or constitute an independent predictor of death remains controversial.
Desde que ocorra dentro dos limites da funcao organica do organismo humano, o estresse pode ser positivo, entretanto, quando a capacidade adaptativa e ultrapassada, pode ocasionar alteracoes biologicas que aumentam o risco de um estado de doenca, como, por exemplo, alteracoes dos sistemas imunologico, cardiovascular, neuroendocrino, e do sistema nervoso central, sendo o hormonio cortisol um importante marcador do estresse fisiologico (Rocha e colaboradores, 2013; Lee, Kim e Choi, 2015).
Although many studies have been carried out to determining blood concentrations of TH and cortisol for analyzing the effects on physiological processes such as meat, milk and fiber production in cattle and sheep, it can be regarded as insufficient efforts in this direction in the goat breeds especially in Angora goats.
Interestingly, there are indications that cortisol levels are not related to [alpha]-amylase during stress suggesting that individual differences in this enzyme represents a response to stress signals independent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis).
The researchers noted that this method of measuring cortisol levels will be key to understanding how to treat and prevent depression.
Fortunately, researchers have identified several natural compounds that have been shown in humans to produce a noticeable reduction in cortisol levels.
This study was designed to analyze the salivary cortisol concentration in riders and horses involved in the HRLP of the Jeju National University Lifelong Education Center, and ultimately to confirm their stress levels.