cortisol


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Related to cortisol: cortisone, Low cortisol

cortisol

(kôr`tĭsôl') or

hydrocortisone,

steroid hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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. Like cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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, cortisol is classed as a glucocorticoid; it stimulates liver glycogen formation while it decreases the rate of glucose utilization in body cells. A main effect of cortisol is to reduce the reserves of protein in all body cells except cells of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It also makes fatty acids available for metabolic use. Cortisol is synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to the stimulating substance adrenocorticotropic hormoneadrenocorticotropic hormone
, polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its chief function is to stimulate the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete adrenocortical steroids, chief among them cortisone.
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 (ACTH). In turn, cortisol is the major regulator of ACTH production in the pituitary gland; it acts by negative feedback inhibition, i.e., a rise in the level of cortisol in the blood inhibits ACTH secretion by the pituitary. Cortisol, usually referred to as hydrocortisonehydrocortisone
, another name for the steroid hormone cortisol, more especially used to refer to preparations of this hormone used medicinally. Hydrocortisone, introduced in 1952, is more potent than cortisone with respect to medicinal metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects.
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 when used medicinally, is more potent than cortisone with respect to metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. See also corticosteroid drugcorticosteroid drug
, any one of several synthetic or naturally occurring substances with the general chemical structure of steroids. They are used therapeutically to mimic or augment the effects of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, which are produced in the cortex of the
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; steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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.

cortisol

[′kȯrd·ə‚sȯl]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
Sometimes however, for a variety of reasons, the tight control is lost and the adrenal gland produces either too much or too little cortisol.
"This study opens up a lot of future research questions and illustrates that the relationship between cortisol levels and depression isn't necessarily a linear one," said Jodi Ford, the lead study author.
In terms of gender, most studies that have examined Cortisol responses to competition have been done with male athletes (Doan et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2009; McKay et al., 1997; Suay et al., 1999), although some show female athletes have anticipatory Cortisol responses prior to competition (Bateup, Booth, Shirtcliff, & Granger, 2002; Kivlighan, Granger, & Booth, 2005).
iv) Extraction of saliva samples: Saliva samples were collected immediately after blood sample collection using cotton based swabs (Salivette cortisol; Sarstedt, Numbrecht-Rommels dorf, Germany), which provided a method for easy and safe collection.
Large spikes in cortisol levels can lead to a lack of focus, recall, and ability to perform tasks.
While a strong relationship between obesity and long-term elevated Cortisol levels exists, not all people dealing with excess weight will show excess Cortisol levels.
"It's important for people to find ways to reduce stress, such as getting enough sleep, engaging in moderate exercise, incorporating relaxation techniques into their daily lives, or asking their doctor about their cortisol levels and taking a cortisol-reducing medication if needed," Echouffo-Tcheugui said in a statement.
"Cortisol affects many different functions," notes study author Dr.
For the study, reported in the journal Neurology, the team included over 2,000 adults in their 40s and 50s, who were then examined for fasting blood cortisol levels and brain volume, as well as memory and thinking skills.
'Cortisol also increases cravings for sugary carbs, caffeine and alcohol,' says Marilyn Glenville, a nutritionist and former president of the Food & Health Forum at the Royal Society of Medicine.
Furthermore, contrary results on altered Cortisol level and perceived stress have been reported.