In this stage, we are able to extend the works of Kretzschmar  (splitting of Hilbert space) and Li [11, 12] (the nonapplicability of Pauli's criterion) to the case of scalar bosons in the gravitational field of topological defects such as cosmic string
and general monopole: first, we are interested in deducing L x L in the presence of topological defects and then solving the scalar DKP equation by taking into account the works of both authors.
Saharian, "Vacuum polarization induced by a cosmic string
in anti-de Sitter spacetime," Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, vol.
The model that we address here consists of a spin-1/2 neutral particle with mass M and magnetic moment [mu], moving in an external electromagnetic field [F.sub.[micro]v] in the cosmic string
spacetime, described by the line element in cylindrical coordinates,
Sakellariadou, "How generic is cosmic string
formation in supersymmetric grand unified theories," Physical Review D, vol.
In this Flatland space-time, point masses replace infinitely long, parallel cosmic strings
. "You can understand everything that happens by just taking one cross section, and that cross section has one less dimension [than the original space-time]," Guth says.
But cosmic strings
can be dangerous since they could cut objects as smooth as a lightsaber because of their size no wider than a proton but a single inch much heavier than Mount Everest.A
have also in past tied up with Gurgaon community radio 107.8FM "Gurgaon Ki Awaaz" and have composed a number of signature tunes for them.
The first cosmic strings
were unstable and split into small pieces capped by monopoles.
have recently run into trouble in that arena because their expected pattern matches neither the distribution of galactic clusters nor the patchiness of background radiation left over from the Big Bang (SN: 1/27/96, p.
"Our results point to several experimental and theoretical situations where such structures may be relevant, ranging from defects in liquid crystals and vortices in superfluid helium to the structure-forming role of cosmic strings
in the early universe," Niemi and Faddeev say.
These results suggest that cosmic strings
preserved remnants of primordial matter, seething at the high temperature of the Big Bang, long after the birth of the universe.
MINIMAL SEEDS FOR STRUCTURE FORMATION Proposed Anisotropy required in seeds the microwave background Random density variations At least 6 pads per million (from quantum fluctuations happening before inflation) Cosmic strings
(topological defects At least about 5 parts per million in space-time caused by phase transitions early in the Big Bang) Late-time topological defects (caused At least about 1 part per million by phase transitions in space-time later than 300,000 years) COBE measured the anisotropy to be 11 [+ or -] 3 parts per million.