would also be doing an online release of their album on Itunes and other big online music stores soon post their website based release of their album.
But when he began to consider what would happen if two cosmic strings
happened to hurtle past one another in opposite directions, things changed.
The first cosmic strings
were unstable and split into small pieces capped by monopoles.
Theory forbids cosmic strings
from having ends, so they must appear as loops or infinite strands.
Not only does Rees review the astrophysics of neutron stars, black holes, cosmological dark matter, the cosmic microwave background radiation, and cosmic strings
(all subjects to which he has made significant research contributions); he also highlights the origin of the chemical elements, the nature of hypothetical wormholes, and the recent discoveries of planets around Sun-like stars.
are investigating another type of model, one in which the missing energy would come from a tangle of lightweight cosmic strings
distributed throughout the universe.
Our results point to several experimental and theoretical situations where such structures may be relevant, ranging from defects in liquid crystals and vortices in superfluid helium to the structure-forming role of cosmic strings
in the early universe," Niemi and Faddeev say.
These results suggest that cosmic strings
preserved remnants of primordial matter, seething at the high temperature of the Big Bang, long after the birth of the universe.
MINIMAL SEEDS FOR STRUCTURE FORMATION Proposed Anisotropy required in seeds the microwave background Random density variations At least 6 pads per million (from quantum fluctuations happening before inflation) Cosmic strings
(topological defects At least about 5 parts per million in space-time caused by phase transitions early in the Big Bang) Late-time topological defects (caused At least about 1 part per million by phase transitions in space-time later than 300,000 years) COBE measured the anisotropy to be 11 [+ or -] 3 parts per million.
Hence, the principle of mediocrity favors scenarios in which cosmic strings
or other spacetime defects (SN: 10/15/94, p.
Noting the similarity between the mathematical model used by Kibble for the formation of cosmic strings
and models used in condensedmatter physics to describe certain kinds of phase transitions, researchers have in recent years turned to laboratory experiments to test the credibility of Kibble's structure-forming mechanism.
That theory holds that variations in the microwave background are the same in all parts of the sky Other theories, which require the presence in the early universe of unusual structures, called cosmic strings
or textures, predict just the opposite.