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see astronautastronaut,
crew member on a U.S. manned spaceflight mission; the Soviet term is cosmonaut. Candidates for manned spaceflight are carefully screened to meet the highest physical and mental standards, and they undergo rigorous training.
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(also astronaut), a person who tests and operates space hardware during a space flight; it is a profession that arose because of man’s penetration into space (1961).

The first cosmonaut trainees were selected from military pilots (USSR) and test pilots (USA), since the necessary combination of qualities (expert flying skill; the ability to make instant decisions and to withstand noise, vibration, acceleration, and their combinations; and experience in carrying out observations and recording their results) is most often found in those professions. Later, in both the USSR and the USA, engineers and scientists with the required specialized knowledge also became part of flight crews.

Cosmonaut training began in the Soviet Union in 1960 and in the USA in 1959 for Mercury program flights and in 1962 for Gemini and Apollo program flights. Soviet cosmonauts who had made space flights as pilots or crew members as of Jan. 1, 1976, were lu. A. Gagarin (1961), G. S. Titov (1961), A. G. Nikolaev (1962 and 1970), P. R. Popovich (1962 and 1974), V. F. Bykovskii (1963), V. V. Tereshkova (Nikolaeva-Tereshkova; 1963), V. M. Komarov (1964 and 1967), K. P. Feoktistov (1964), B. B. Egorov (1964), P. I. Beliaev (1965), A. A. Leonov (1965 and 1975), G. T. Beregovoi (1968), V. A. Shatalov (twice in 1969; 1971), A. S. Eliseev (twice in 1969; 1971), E. V. Khrunov (1969), B. V. Volynov (1969), G. S. Shonin (1969), V. N. Kubasov (1969 and 1975), A. V. Filipchenko (1969 and 1974), V. N. Volkov (1969 and 1971), V. V. Gorbatko (1969), V. I. Sevast’-ianov (1970 and 1975), N. N. Rukavishnikov (1971), G. T. Dobrovol’skii (1971), V. I. Patsaev (1971), V. G. Lazarev (1973), O. G. Makarov (1973), P. I. Klimuk (1973 and 1975), V. V. Lebedev (1973), lu. P. Artiukhin (1974), L. S. Demin (1974), G. V. Sarafanov (1974), A. A. Gubarev (1975), and G. M. Grechko (1975).

American astronauts were A. Shepard (1961 and 1971), V. Grissom (1961 and 1965), J. Glenn (1962), M. S. Carpenter (1962), W. Schirra (1962, 1965, and 1968), L. G. Cooper (1963, 1965), J. Young (1965, 1966, 1969 and 1972), J. McDivitt (1965 and 1969), E. White (1965 and 1968), C Conrad (1965, 1966, 1969, and 1973), F. Borman (1965 and 1968), J. Lovell (1965, 1966, 1968, and 1970), T. Stafford (1965, 1966, and 1969), N. Armstrong (1966 and 1969), D. Scott (1966, 1969, and 1971), E. Cernan (1966, 1969, and 1972), M. Collins (1966 and 1969), R. Gordon (1966 and 1969), E. Aldrin, Jr. (1966 and 1969), W. Cunningham (1968), D. Eisele (1968), W. Anders (1968), R. Schweikert (1969), A. Bean (1969 and 1973), J. Swigert (1970), F. Haise (1970), E. Mitchell (1971), S. Roosa (1971), A. Worden (1971), J. Irwin (1971), T. Mattingly (1972), C. Duke (1972), R. Evans (1972), H. Schmitt (1972), J. Kerwin (1973), P. Weitz (1973), O. Garriott (1973), J. Lousma (1973), G. Carr (1973), E. Gibson (1973), W. Pogue (1973), D. Slayton (1975), and V. Brand (1975).

G. A. NAZAROV [13–760–1; updated]


(aerospace engineering)
An astronaut in the former Soviet Union.
References in periodicals archive ?
Your book will be used as a training manual for taking pictures of the earth from the ISS by the cosmonauts.
Prior to his flight, a group of experts selected Gagarin out of many other candidates to be a cosmonaut after a series of psychological and physical tests.
Professors Alison McMillan and Peter Excell with cosmonaut Igor Volk and (main) the cosmonaut with his Soyuz T-12 space crew
The trip was just more than a day, ending on April 12, the Day of the Cosmonaut - the anniversary of the Yury Gagarin flight - instead of lasting the seven days that was the allotted span of all such Interkosmos trips.
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Also remaining on the ISS are Russian cosmonauts Alexander Kaleri and Oleg Skripochka.
When they get off at St Petersburg, they're whisked to Star City, built in secluded forests outside Moscow, where they can choose from four jaw-dropping cosmonaut adventures.
1961: Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to travel in space.
THE first woman cosmonaut, the pretty, smiling, 26-year-old Russian "Seagull" Valentina Tereshkova, yesterday kept her date in a joint flight programme with cosmonaut Valery Bykovsky.
Another chapter, titled "A Seagull in Flight," focuses on female cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova.
In writing a story of astronaut Adam MacGregor's encounter in space with a mysterious derelict that may hold a dead Russian cosmonaut, and the political storm that ensues involving the 'Open Lands' concept being applied to space in a time of tense East-West international politics, nuclear weapons, and the technological difficulties of rendezvousing in space, Boyle also demonstrates his talent as a writer and his imagination as a storyteller.
A RUSSIAN Cosmonaut and space engineer have visited Wirral's space museum.