costate


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costate

[′kä‚stāt]
(biology)
Having ribs or ridges.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to our investigations, only four species from Bingol [Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Graptodytes veterator behningi Zaitzev, 1927, Scarodytes halensis (Fabricius, 1787) and Scarodytes costates, Aykut and Fery, 2017] and six species from Diyarbakir [Agabus faldermanni Zaitzev, 1927, Ilybius chalconatus (Panzer, 1796), Deronectes evelynae Fery and Hosseinie, 1998, Deronectes syriacus Wewalka, 1970, Graptodytes sedilloti phrygius Guignot, 1942 and Hygrotus lernaeus (Schaum, 1857)] have been reported so far.
Francolin et al., "Direct trajectory optimization and costate estimation of finite-horizon and infinite-horizon optimal control problems using a Radau pseudospectral method," Computational Optimization and Applications, vol.
where [[gamma].sub.1], [[gamma].sub.2] represent the costate variables of the system problem associating the reference price and investment desire with the decisions.
Comparing the growth rates for the costate variables [[mu].sub.t] and [[lambda].sub.t] in Equations (4) and (20), we know the ratio [[mu].sub.t]/[[lambda].sub.t] is always constant.
Using the PMP optimization technique, the state equation and costate equation are obtained as
The disadvantages are the small convergence radius and highly sensitive costate which is difficult to estimate.
According to Hamiltonian function equation (11), this research seeks these necessary conditions for the minimum value of Qc, that is, a set of costate equations (formula (13)), for the sake of solving the initial value of these costate variables.
where [[lambda].sup.T] = [[[lambda].sub.r] [[lambda].sub.q]] is costate. The costate equation is
Understanding the optimality conditions requires consideration of the costate variable, [lambda], which is the shadow cost of corruption.
16).--T1 1.2x longer than apical width, apical width 1.3x basal width; T1T2 and most of T3 basally costate, longitudinal carina present along T1 and T2.