Preoperative pulmonary function tests, with or without urinary cotinine
levels depending on the clinician, may be an early predictor of the course of the anaesthetic period in suspected passive smoker individuals who are prepared for general anaesthesia.
It is secreted, primarily, by type II alveolar cells, and regulates the innate immune response of the lungs.5 Studies have shown a direct relation between these rum SP-D level stosmoking and airway obstruction.6,7 However, no suc h data is available regarding the female COPD patients despite the fact that COPD is affecting far greater number of women than men worldwide.8 Cotinine
is the primary metabolite of nicotine which is the main constituent of cigarette smoke.
To assess prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure during 1988-2014, the percentage of persons with serum cotinine
levels 0.05-10 ng/mL for each survey cycle was calculated among nonsmokers overall by age group (3-11, 12-19, and [greater than or equal to] 20 years), and, among children aged 3-11 years, by race and Hispanic origin ** (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, or Mexican American).
In addition, a sample of urine of approximately 10 mL was obtained in a urine collection bag or a sterile urine container from all children included in the study for measuring urine cotinine
levels serve as an accurate assessment means of students' exposure levels to cigarette smoke [34, 35].
One complication of using cotinine
measures exclusively in CM programs is that, because of the slow metabolism, cotinine
levels do not correlate well with recent decreases in smoking (Fidler & West, 2011).
Covariates in the NHANES analysis included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), body mass index (BMI), and cotinine
Researchers found that the presence of significant nicotine on the hands of children was associated with equally significant levels of the harmful tobacco metabolite cotinine
in their saliva.
level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Sunlong Biotech Co.
is a compound, a derivative of pyrrolidine, and a metabolite of nicotine.
is derived from nicotine but stays in the body much longer, giving a longer-term picture of recent smoke inhalation.