Determination of the layer thickness with stripping coulometry and AFM shows, in contrast to XRF, a significant and systematic dependence on the aging process.
Experimental values were determined with stripping coulometry after extended room temperature storage up to three months.
The data of the present investigation (red circle/solid) and the data of Posdorfer (4) (blue downward triangle), which are both based on stripping coulometry of immersion tin layers, are in excellent agreement and relate to the initial stages of IMC formation.
Based upon the principles of coulometry
and Faraday's Law, our TOC, TC, TIC and surface carbon analyzers provide excellent accuracy and precision without requiring costly, time-consuming instrument calibrations.
According to the International Centre for Metrology, isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, coulometry
, gravimetry, titrimetry, and determination of freezing-point depression are primary methods, yielding results in SI units (moles) without requiring reference to a standard (9).
Colorimetry and constant-potential coulometry
determinations of transferrin-bound iron, total iron-binding capacity, and total iron in serum containing iron-dextran, with use of sodium dithionite and alumina columns.