counterfactual

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counterfactual

or

counterfactual conditional

a conditional statement, of the form ‘if a , then b’, in which the assertion is that ‘were a to have occurred, then b would have followed’, as in ‘had the Greeks lost the Battle of Marathon, then a different historical outcome from the uniquely Western route to modernity would have been the outcome’. Since the ‘antecedent’ (the first clause of the statement) in such counterfactual statements is unfulfilled, the empirical assessment of the claim involved in the ‘consequent’ (the second clause) presents some difficulties. The plausibility of such statements depends on the possibility of citing convincing supporting evidence which can justify the conditional statement.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
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Being able to counterfactually predict how much a player will produce in a lineup, and the impact that player will have on his teammates' production, is an important component in free agent evaluation.
Otherwise, on the base of the Niels Bohr's correspondence principle, the old equation Fk should have been obtained as a limit case of [F.sub.k+m], when the new factors [x.sub.k+1],..., [x.sub.k+m] are assumed counterfactually equal to zero.
Specifically, we consider shocks with counterfactually large persistent and transitory components and preferences that display ambiguity aversion.
Consider the notion of counterfactually possible worlds, worlds closely resembling the actual/factual world that could have been a certain way in one respect, had the actual world been, say, slightly different in some other respect.
Counterfactually, satellite breakaway did not inevitably have to lead to the collapse of the entire Soviet Union.
The authors also assess--and reject--a number of competing explanations, including changes in who becomes a parent (the rise in average childcare hours remains even when averaging across all adults); rising incomes (an insufficient explanation given the moderate income elasticity of childcare time); increasing safety concerns (survey data suggest that such concerns actually fell over the relevant period); greater enjoyment of childcare (which predicts, counterfactually, that fertility would also rise); and more flexible work schedules (which cannot explain why the rise is even greater among nonworking mothers).
While non-preference is observed directly, strict preference and indifference cannot be inferred solely from observed actions and must instead be inferred counterfactually.
In that case, the fantasy world of the upper panel appears to be counterfactually reflected in the real-world water of the panel on the left below.
Such anachronistic comparisons always seem to involve the same legerdemain, turning whatever side the writer hates into a precursor of the Nazis (whence the inescapable argumentum ad Hitlerum) and making the righteous victory appear counterfactually as a step towards the latest super-duper version of U.S.
counterfactually depend on E, and E may counterfactually depend on C,
(3) Notice that this estimation method assumes (counterfactually) that the options are European--that is, that they can be exercised only at maturity.
Counterfactually, OAS facilitation through the mesa helped prevent a slide toward further state repression, a military coup, or even civil war.