Counteroffensive


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Counteroffensive

 

a special type of offensive, operational or strategic in scope, with the objective of routing an advancing enemy who has been weakened in preceding battles against defending forces.

Unlike the conventional offensive, preparations for the counteroffensive are made in the course of defensive battle. The history of the art of war gives many examples where a counteroffensive grew into a general offensive of all the forces of the defending troops and achieved major strategic objectives. During the Civil War and military intervention of 1918–20 it was in the course of a counteroffensive that the forces of the Red Army routed the counterrevolutionary troops of A. V. Kolchak (1919), N. N. ludenich (1919), and A. I. Denikin (1919) and the army of bourgeois-landowner Poland (1920). During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 the outstanding examples of counteroffensives by Soviet troops were the counteroffensives during the battles of Moscow (1941–42), Stalingrad (1942–43), and Kursk (1943). In all these operations the counterofl’ensive ended with the defeat of the enemy, and in each case the Soviet forces switched to a general offensive.

N. N. FOMIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Next, it is quite possible the Soviets did themselves more harm than good by their fruitless battering of German lines in hasty counteroffensives. The Smolensk pocket trapped and destroyed three Soviet armies; the most successful Soviet counterattack (by Konev's 19th Army) succeeded in damaging a German infantry division.
The Defense Ministry of Nagorno-Karabakh Sunday said its forces went on a counteroffensive around the village of Talish after Azerbaijani forces shelled their positions just before dawn.
On Sunday, the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the Islamist fighters' counteroffensive had forced the Syrian army to withdraw from such villages as Mansoura, Ziara and Tal Waset toward bases northwest of Hama city.
Walker, took over as commander of Eighth Army in Korea shortly after the Chinese counteroffensive (December 23, 1950); moved swiftly to reorganize and revitalize the seriously demoralized force, strained by a difficult retreat in the face of massive Chinese attacks; halted the Chinese counteroffensive seventy-five miles south of Seoul; launched a vigorous counteroffensive on the overextended Chinese (January 25, 1951); liberated Seoul (March 14-15) and crossed the 35th Parallel (March 30) before halting the drive (April 22); meanwhile President Truman had dismissed General MacArthur and chosen Ridgway to take his place as U.N.
The source said that about 35 to 50 terrorists were killed in the Syrian army's counteroffensive in Northwestern Aleppo city.
In October, Iraqi forces retook most of Dhuluiyah from ISIS, but the jihadis later launched a counteroffensive and were able to seize ground they had lost.
forces south of Seoul in a massive counteroffensive (November 25, 1950-January 15, 1951); unable to maintain his gains, he was forced back northward by a series of U.N.
But a closer look at the details of this supposed counteroffensive reveals a series of weak points, perhaps best represented by the situation on the Golan Heights.
counteroffensive as part of IX Corps (February 1951); just before departure from Korea, briefly commanded the IX Corps (February 24-March 5); assigned to Camp Pendleton (April), he was promoted to lieutenant general (July 1953) and given command of Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic (July 1953-September 1955); retired from active duty (September 1).
TEHRAN (FNA)- The Yemeni army and popular forces repelled the Saudi-led forces' fourth attack on their military positions in the Western part of Ma'rib province, inflicting heavy losses on them in a counteroffensive.
Gadhafi's government earlier declared a unilateral cease-fire as Western warplanes prepared to attack his forces, which had defeated rebels in the western city of Zawiya and driven them back in a counteroffensive toward Benghazi in the east
Defense; Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase II; Counteroffensive, Phase III; Tet Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase IV; Counteroffensive, Phase V; Counteroffensive, Phase VI; Tet 69/Counteroffensive; Summer-Fall 1969; Winter-Spring 1970; Sanctuary Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase VII; Consolidation I; Consolidation II; Cease-Fire