The shape of the spectrum is consistent with octahedral environment around Cu(II) ion and the higher g value for the investigated [Cu(MFMAQ)Cl] complex (Table 5), when compared to that of free electron (g = 2.24) revealing an appreciable covalency
of metal ligand bonding with d[x.sup.2]-[y.sup.2] as the ground-state characteristic of octahedral stereochemistry .
Using EPR covalency
character has been (calculated as 0.74) enhanced between metal and ligand in the compound.
Most (98%) commercial reactive dyes are fixed under alkaline conditions.In order to achive maximum wash fastness of a reactive dyeing, the hydrolysed dye which is present in the fibre and held by weaker affinity forces, than covalency
, should be completely removed, as otherwise it would lower the wash fastness of the dyeing because of its lower substantivity to cellulose.
Beside implying a low Poisson ratio, the very high G/B ratio holds implications for several other crystal-bonding properties: covalency
, Cauchy-relation departure, many-body forces, and others.
In this study we use semiempirical computational methods to show that taxol can form a octahedral geometry with Fe(III) with bonds on the order of 1.90 to 2.50 Angstroms, suggesting covalency
. This is the same geometry and distances found in many known siderophores.
The lowering of the energy of [sup.3]P state is a measure of covalency
among other effect which is expressed as Nephelauxetic effect and represented as [[beta].sub.0].
Consequently, the electrons in both bonds must overlap to some degree, indicating that the electron in the hydrogen bond is circulating around two linked atoms--the hallmark of covalency