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black-eyed pea,


black-eyed bean,

annual legume (Vigna sinensis) of the pulsepulse,
in botany, common name for members of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), a large plant family, called also the pea, or legume, family. Numbering about 650 genera and 17,000 species, the family is third largest, after the asters and the orchids.
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 family. Introduced in the early 18th cent. from the Old World to the S United States, it has become a staple of Southern cooking and an important catch cropcatch crop,
any quick-growing crop sown between seasons of regular planting to make use of temporary idleness of the soil or to compensate for the failure of a main crop.
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, soil enhancer, and forage. Cowpea, sometimes called China bean, is grown commercially in India and China and as a high-protein subsistence crop in Africa. Cowpea is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Vigna sinensis), an annual plant of the family Leguminosae. It resembles the kidney bean and the hyacinth bean. The stems, which are straight or prostrate, measure 20–200 cm long. The leaves are large, ternate, and long-petiolate. The inflorescences contain from two to eight yellowish green flowers. The pods, which measure 8–10 cm long, are cylindrical and linear; they contain four to ten seeds. Cowpea requires heat and moisture. The seeds sprout at a temperature of 12°-14°C; the sprouts are sensitive to spring frosts. The plant is cultivated in many countries, including Denmark, the Netherlands, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United States, and China. In the USSR it is grown in Transcaucasia, Middle Asia, the Northern Caucasus, and the southern Ukraine. Cowpea does not grow wild. There are many varieties under cultivation, predominantly on chernozem and clay soils—the soils on which they grow best.

Cowpea seeds are extremely tasty and have great nutritional value (containing 24–28 percent protein and 1.5–2 percent fat). They are used for food and forage. The unripened beans of varieties of the asparagus bean ( Vigna sesquipedalis) are eaten as a vegetable in fresh and canned forms. The foliage is used as pasture feed, hay, silage, and green manure; it is very nourishing and easily digestible and can be eaten by all types of livestock except horses. The yield per hectare (ha) is 126–300 centners of foliage, 45–60 centners of hay, and up to 14 centners of seeds (reaching 30 centners in moist subtropical areas). Cowpea that is grown for seeds is planted in wide rows spaced 50–70 cm apart. Plants that are cultivated for fodder and green manure are sown in rows spaced 30–35 cm apart or are planted broadcast. Cowpea is also planted in mixtures with corn, sorghum, sudan grass, and other crops. The rate of sowing for seeds is 35–40 kg/ha; for green fodder, 50 kg/ha; and for silage in mixtures with other crops, 25–30 kg/ha. The seeds are planted at a depth of 4–9 cm. Plantings of cowpea are damaged by pea and bean weevils, beetles, and pea moths. Countermeasures include chemical and agricultural-engineering methods.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Vigna sinensis. An annual legume in the order Rosales cultivated for its edible seeds. Also known as blackeye bean.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
So we are preparing for the National Variety Performance Trials, to collate the data and present these data to the National Varietal Release Committee, and say this is how PBR Cowpea performed in farmers fields and in different agro ecology in Nigeria.
Partnering with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, FAO supported 23 seed producer groups (450 farmers) with foundation seed across the three states, enabling groups to produce adapted and locally preferred seeds of millet, sorghum, maize, cowpea and groundnut.
The soil cores were subjected to five different treatments: (1) control (no residue or N fertiliser added); (2) [sup.15]N-labelled cowpea residue (200 [micro]g N [g.sup.-1] soil); (3) [sup.15]N-labelled urea (200 [micro]g N [g.sup.-1] soil) added as an aqueous solution; (4) [sup.15]Nlabelled cowpea residue (100 [micro]g N [g.sup.-1] soil) + unlabelled urea (100 [micro]g N [g.sup.-1] soil); and (5) unlabelled cowpea residue (100 ([micro]g N [g.sup.-1] soil) + [sup.15]N-labelled urea (100 [micro]g N [g.sup.-1] soil).
Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of irrigation intervals on the growth, water consumption and water use efficiency of cowpea crop under conventional and no-tillage systems in a semi-arid region.
Several essays were developed in the scope of identifying the cowpea genotypes resistant to the attack of C.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is rich in protein and suitable for human diet as well as for animal feed.
Space cowpea seeds 4 to 8 inches apart in the row, and plan to thin them to 1 foot apart as they grow, with at least 30 inches between rows.
Symptoms of viral diseases in cowpea include mottling of the leaves, yellow mosaic patterns on the leaves, vein clearing, chlorotic and necrotic spots and stunting [11].
The identification of native rhizobia strains well adapted to local environmental conditions and edaphic characteristics to be used as bioinoculants of cowpea in Kenyan soils could have a significant economic and environmental impact.
In Ghana, cowpea is second to groundnut in terms of area under cultivation and quantity produced and consumed annually [6].
Among the weed management practices, maximum grain yield (2.76 t/ha) was recorded with application of butachlor + dhaincha (1:1) + 1hand weeding followed by Butachlor + cowpea (1:1) + 1 HW 2.51 and weed free conditions maintained by hand weeding twice.