The deformations measured with a 50 mm base displacement gauge at the level of tensile reinforcement could be treated as actual deformations in the reinforcement at cracked section
because the decrease of such deformations caused by restraining tensile concrete (when hypothesis of plane sections is valid) is insignificant.
The relation between the left state vector and right state vector of a cracked section
k has the following form:
The randomly oriented fibres crossing the cracked section
resisted the propagation of cracks and separation of the section.
The cracked section
was removed and replaced with new ductile iron pipe and high-max dresser couplings.
Four people died and 102 were injured when the King's Cross to Leeds train was derailed by a cracked section
of track at Hatfield, Herts, in October 2000.
The crash occurred when a London to Leeds express was derailed at 115mph by a cracked section
of rail in October 2000.
In his professional opinion, the tower is perfectly capable of being restored, and the cracked section
of the outer skin rebuilt without having to demolish the large corresponding section of the inner skin.
In places where you're concerned about either strength or appearance, the best solution is to break out the cracked section
and repour with new concrete.
Assuming elastic behaviour and that the Bernoulli hypothesis is satisfied, the curvature of a cracked section
c], the total flexibility matrix for the cracked section
is given as
The court heard Mr Blair met Railtrack bosses on October 27, 2000 - 10 days after an express train careered off a cracked section
of line at Hatfield, Herts, killing four people.
The pipe joint or cracked section
of pipe is bridged by the rubber seal and locked onto the pipe by expanding the retaining bands, allowing the pipe to move without affecting the integrity of the seal.