CRAM


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CRAM

(1) (Chalcogenide RAM) See phase change memory.

(2) (Card Random Access Memory) An early magnetic card mass storage device from NCR that was made available on its 315 computer systems in 1962. It offered reasonably reliable random access storage at a time when magnetic tapes with sequential access were the primary storage medium.

A Mechanical Wonder
CRAM used a removable cartridge housing a deck of 3x14" cards with a magnetic recording surface. There were initially 256, and later 512, cards in the deck, providing 5.5MB and 11MB of storage. With a roomful of 16 units connected to the computer, the total storage capacity was 176 megabytes, a rather large amount of random access capacity for that era.

With air blowing over them to keep them apart, the notched cards were suspended from eight rods that were selectively moved to release a specific card. The card was dropped and wrapped around a rotating drum using air pressure. After reading or writing, it was returned to the cartridge. Every once in a while, two cards dropped at the same time, causing a loud halt to the operation. See RACE and Data Cell.


CRAM Units
NCR's CRAM was a successful addition to its computer line, offering reliable random access during the 1960s. By the end of the decade, magnetic disks were becoming mainstream. (Image courtesy of NCR Corporation.)







The Card Drop
Separated by jets of air so the card could fall freely, a card was released to the read/write head by moving the rods. (Image courtesy of NCR Corporation.)
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References in periodicals archive ?
Cram served the church both internationally and nationally.
Meanwhile, the flourishing of cram schools for spotting illegality is the latest trend, following "ran-parazzi," who were rewarded from the Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission for reporting violators of the "Kim Young-ran Act," largely known as the anti-corruption act, under which public officials, school teachers and journalists are banned from receiving meals costing more than 30,000 won, gifts over 50,000 won or congratulatory or condolence money over 100,000 won.
Cram added: "They haven't thought through the practicalities."
Cram said: "That leaves one place - and it seems to me Matthew will go ahead of Michael Bingham.
"It's an exciting time for the British Athletics endurance programme and it's great to be part of it," said Cram, who won the world 1,500m title in Helsinki in 1983 and Olympic silver over the same distance the following year in Los Angeles.
Cram - who took Gold in the 1500 and 800m the last time the Commonwealths came to Scotland in 1986 - said: "I guess we will only find out a few years down the line if 2012 has been the year that really kick-started athletics again in Britain.
In January, the program expanded to 18 elementary schools, and Cram hopes to serve all 24 elementary schools by the beginning of the 2012-2013 school year.
"If she is running the Championships and doing really well, I'm sure I'd get a bit excited," said Cram.
Since 2001, The Cram Group is a leading Consulting, Hosting, and Software Development services provider focused on the Architecture, Engineering and Construction Industry.
Cram said: "Recreational drugs are not the same as someone who has systematically tried to cheat to win.
Cram, one of the most successful middle-distance runners of the 1980s, told the audience that everyone was capable of exceeding their own expectations provided they had the will to do so and had a path set out to achieve that.
BRITAIN'S athletes should be aiming to win a minimum of five or six gold medals at this week's European Championships if they are to head into their home Olympics in 2012 with confidence, according to Steve Cram.