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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Gruidae), a family of birds of the order Gruiformes. They are large birds with a long neck and long legs. Their standing height varies from 90 cm (hooded crane) to 155 cm (sarus crane). The lower part of the tibia has no feathers. The fore toes are joined at the base by a small membrane. The tail is short. The males and females have similar plumage.

Most cranes have a loud, trumpeting cry. They inhabit primarily open places, such as the steppe, broad marshes, or tundra. The northern species migrate. They settle in separate pairs, but during migration and wintering periods join into flocks. The nest is built on the ground, and each clutch contains two eggs or, more rarely, one or three. The young abandon the nest soon after hatching; both parents care for them. Their food consists of vegetable matter (seeds, berries, shoots, and plant rhizomes) and animal matter (insects, mollusks, and small rodents). Migrating flocks often damage crops. The numbers of many species of Gruidae have sharply declined because of the drying up of swamps and the cultivation of virgin lands; some species are on the verge of complete extinction.

The family contains 15 species in five genera. Three genera—the Stanley crane (Tetrapteryx; one species), the crowned crane (Balearica\ one species), and the wattled crane (Bugeranus) —are found only in Africa. The demoiselle crane (Anthropoides) is found in the steppes of Africa, Europe, and Asia (including the USSR). The genus Grus is represented by ten species; they are distributed in Europe, Asia, North America, Australia, and New Guinea. There are five species in the USSR: the common crane (G. grus), widely distributed in the central and northern belts of the USSR; the sandhill crane (G. canadensis), in northeastern Siberia; the white crane, or Siberian crane (G. leucogeranus), in the tundra of northeastern Yakutiia; the hooded crane (G. monachus), in eastern Siberia; and the white-naped crane (G. vipio), in the Amur basin. The Manchurian crane (G. japonensis), which nested in the Ussuri basin, is practically extinct today.


Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 2. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and ‘ N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1951.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Cran is correct that the book fills a gap in the history of the Sons of Freedom, and he does present a reasonable analysis of prevailing assumptions about conflict resolution.
If we do not, our future holds a terrifying potential for conflict." MacNeil and Cran note that The English Language Amendment, although frequently reintroduced, has gone nowhere.
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They said that the CRE pact was binding on Beverley & Holderness MP Mr Cran and all other Conservative election candidates, as it had been signed by Mr Hague on behalf of the whole party.
Scripter Troy Kennedy Martin has crafted a tight story based on research by Bill Cran, Tom Mangold and Peter Huchthausen, a former U.S.
Mobile telecommunications service provider MTC has heaped praise on the Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN) for the way the industry regulator has allowed businesses in the sector to flourish.
Tandis que le ton monte d'un cran sur les places de liberte dans toute l'Egypte, Chafic a egalement supprime une tournee prevue hier vendredi au village de Brinbal dans le gouvernorat de Kafr El-Cheikh.