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the branch of science concerned with the shape and size of the human skull, esp with reference to variations between different races



a branch of anatomy concerned with the structure of the skull of man and animals.

Measurement parameters (craniometry) and descriptive features (cranioscopy) are used to characterize the structure of the skull. Individual structural characteristics are determined with special instruments that permit the skull to be drawn in different planes and projections (craniography). Craniological studies are widely used in anthropology. The patterns of variations in and relationships between such things as the structural characteristics of the skull, age-related changes, and sexual differences are studied in human morphology to solve general theoretical problems and to meet the needs of applied anthropology. In the study of anthropogenesis, craniological data are used to characterize the stages in the physical evolution of man and monkeys, thus helping to distinguish the features peculiar to the successive stages in the formation of the skull. In studies of race, conclusions are drawn from studies of skull material concerning the differentiation of racial types. A comparison of the craniological series of the same or different eras associated with a certain territory reveals the similarity or difference between the ancient populations of the territories under study. M. M. Gerasimov's efforts to reconstruct the face of ancient and modern peoples from the skull are widely known.


Debets, G. F. “Paleoantropologiia SSSR.” In the collection Tr. Instituta etnografii AN SSSR, Novaia seriia, vol. 4. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Bunak, V. V. “Cherep cheloveka i stadii ego formirovaniia u iskopaemykh liudei i sovremennykh ras.” Ibid., vol. 49. Moscow, 1959.
Gerasimov, M. M. “Vosstanovlenie litsa po cherepu.” Ibid., vol. 28. Moscow, 1955.
Alekseev, V. P., and G. F. Debets. Kraniometriia. Moscow, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
Douglass's reclamation of phrenology is striking, especially given the dose proximity between phrenology and craniology.
With a collection of one thousand human skulls, Morton launched craniology in the United States under a European theoretical paradigm, sorting crania into five racial groups: Caucasian, Mongolian, American, Malay, and Ethiopian.
53) Whether inflicted by banditry or craniology, lynch mob or militia, in gold-rush California social as well as corporeal wounds draw the public together to share in the spectacle of its own violation: the relentless, and relentlessly spectacular, division of the social whole into always violable, routinely violated parts.
Halford, a professor of anatomy and physiology in the University of Melbourne, and whilst this does not contain any information on Derrimut, it does present the craniology of Jimmy Dunbar, a Boonwurrung man who died at Mordialloc in 1877.
Gabriel Tarde may have rejected the excesses of Cesare Lombroso's craniology, but he insisted that criminals' arms were longer than those of a normal person (Renneville 217).
And the methodological strategies required to demonstrate the relationship among Leonardo's various activities demand sophistication, for it is not at all obvious today that his study of craniology, embryology, and cardiology necessarily has anything to do with his ideas about composing effective paintings, as this study suggests.
To this end, British-Israelites paraded through their literature every scrap of evidence from the historical and archaeological record as well as from the new racial sciences of anthropology, ethnology, philology, and craniology that might in any way be interpreted as proof of Britain's Israelitish descent.
Anthropometry (the measuring and mathematical depiction of living bodies) and craniology (the study of skulls) were deemed to provide reliable anthropological matters of fact parallel to the achievements of laboratory science and classical natural history.