craniology


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craniology

the branch of science concerned with the shape and size of the human skull, esp with reference to variations between different races

Craniology

 

a branch of anatomy concerned with the structure of the skull of man and animals.

Measurement parameters (craniometry) and descriptive features (cranioscopy) are used to characterize the structure of the skull. Individual structural characteristics are determined with special instruments that permit the skull to be drawn in different planes and projections (craniography). Craniological studies are widely used in anthropology. The patterns of variations in and relationships between such things as the structural characteristics of the skull, age-related changes, and sexual differences are studied in human morphology to solve general theoretical problems and to meet the needs of applied anthropology. In the study of anthropogenesis, craniological data are used to characterize the stages in the physical evolution of man and monkeys, thus helping to distinguish the features peculiar to the successive stages in the formation of the skull. In studies of race, conclusions are drawn from studies of skull material concerning the differentiation of racial types. A comparison of the craniological series of the same or different eras associated with a certain territory reveals the similarity or difference between the ancient populations of the territories under study. M. M. Gerasimov's efforts to reconstruct the face of ancient and modern peoples from the skull are widely known.

REFERENCES

Debets, G. F. “Paleoantropologiia SSSR.” In the collection Tr. Instituta etnografii AN SSSR, Novaia seriia, vol. 4. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Bunak, V. V. “Cherep cheloveka i stadii ego formirovaniia u iskopaemykh liudei i sovremennykh ras.” Ibid., vol. 49. Moscow, 1959.
Gerasimov, M. M. “Vosstanovlenie litsa po cherepu.” Ibid., vol. 28. Moscow, 1955.
Alekseev, V. P., and G. F. Debets. Kraniometriia. Moscow, 1964.

V. P. CHTETSOV

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by way of France, and George Gliddon, Samuel George Morton's collaborator and popular advocate of craniology, was born in Devonshire, England and raised in Egypt, where his father was United States consul.
With a collection of one thousand human skulls, Morton launched craniology in the United States under a European theoretical paradigm, sorting crania into five racial groups: Caucasian, Mongolian, American, Malay, and Ethiopian.
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On craniology of South-East Estonian population in XI-XVIII CC.--Papers on anthropology, VI, 57-69.
And the methodological strategies required to demonstrate the relationship among Leonardo's various activities demand sophistication, for it is not at all obvious today that his study of craniology, embryology, and cardiology necessarily has anything to do with his ideas about composing effective paintings, as this study suggests.
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Anthropometry (the measuring and mathematical depiction of living bodies) and craniology (the study of skulls) were deemed to provide reliable anthropological matters of fact parallel to the achievements of laboratory science and classical natural history.