here--from physiognomy, phrenology and craniometry
to criminology and
was another emerging discipline which believed that the size of a skull could be used to determine intelligence.
Most of these bio-determinists employed craniometry
to prove woman's biological and intellectual inferiority.
Only belatedly, for example, does he identify in George's writings "a retrogressive move, hearkening back to nineteenth-century craniometry
One of the first and most prominent Russian anthropologists, Anatolii Petrovich Bogdanov (1834-96), used French craniometrical techniques to measure skulls that he personally excavated from Moscow cemeteries and produced some of the most influential studies in craniometry
. (56) In 1879, Bogdanov organized an anthropological exhibition that brought together many of the empire's anthropological, archaeological, and ethnographic collections, which were later housed in Moscow University's Museum of Anthropology.
Missteps are not uncommon, as is illustrated by reexamining the history of phrenology, craniometry
, and the XYY controversy.
The "scientific racists" employed several ludicrous techniques and theories, including craniometry
(measurement of the bones of the skull) and phrenology (study of the "bumps" on heads to determine character, personality traits, and criminality), to prove the intellectual, moral, and ethic superiority of Europeans to non-Europeans.
In Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould recounts numerous "bad arguments" within the frame of his own carefully reasoned "good" argument, a critique of nineteeth-century craniometry
and twentieth-century intelligence testing that makes as explicit as possible the warrants, reservations, and qualifiers.
For Broca, the measurements of the skull, craniometry
, gave a scientific validity to anthropology and provided the most accurate way to make racial discriminations.
(3) This is, to be sure, a far cry from the April 1877 issue of Harper's New Monthly Magazine wherein anthropologists report on the craniometry
of the "Gorilla," "Chimpanzee," "Bushwoman," and "European." (4)
Scientists who supported this theory claimed that a racial hierarchy and the measurement of intelligence can be obtained by craniometry
(accurate measurement of human skulls from around the world) and certain psychological and IQ tests.