crèche

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crèche

(krĕsh, krāsh), representation of the Infant Jesus in the manger, usually surrounded by figures of Mary, Joseph, shepherds, animals, and the Wise Men; also called Christmas Crib. The crèche has been displayed in churches during the period from Christmas Eve to Jan. 6 since the Middle Ages, especially after St. Francis of Assisi instituted the custom in 1223 at Gréccio, Italy. It is a Christmas tradition in many homes. The term crèche is also applied to a day nurseryday nursery,
 day-care center,
or crèche
, institution for the care of the children of working parents. Originating in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th cent.
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Crèche

 

(Russian, detskie iasli), in the USSR, a preschool educational establishment in the public health system for children from two months to three years of age.

Crèches provide health care and help ensure the proper physical and mental development of children. In 1913, Russia had 19 crèches, which cared for a total of 550 children. In the USSR the establishment of a broad network of crèches was a prerequisite for the provision of health care for mothers and children. In 1940 there were about 781,000 children in crèches, and in 1977 the number exceeded 3 million, including both children receiving day care and those receiving around-the-clock care.

Four age groups are distinguished in crèches: infant (to nine months), toddler (nine to 14 months), middle (14 to 24 months), and older (two to three years). Each group follows a suitable regimen that includes periodic medical examinations. Entrants undergo a medical examination and an epidemiologic investigation. A créche is directed by a person with a secondary medical education; the children’s health is supervised by a doctor from a pediatric polyclinic.

Since 1959 combined preschool establishments called crèche-kindergartens have been organized in the USSR. Most of the expenses involved in the organization and operation of crèches are covered by the state. In most socialist countries crèches are organized on essentially the same principles as in the USSR. A number of capitalist countries have institutions that serve children under the age of three, but institutions like crèches and crèche-kindergartens have not been extensively developed.

References in periodicals archive ?
Antes da entrada na creche, o pai trabalhava 40 horas semanais, com dois turnos livres para poder preparar aula e corrigir provas dos alunos.
The creche will be managed by independent nannies at all times and will also have a selection of movies to keep the children entertained.
Fredrik Reinisch, general manager of the Jebel Ali Golf Resort & Spa, said: "The Creche is a fabulous addition to the childcare offering at the resort and I believe we're the first hotel in Dubai to offer this standard of facility to our guests.
The Creche is for babies below 3 years who are provided with nutritious food and rest, in a safe environment under the direction of a childcare worker.
One display, created by Chairman Nancy Mallett, was "The Creche in Time of War" Mallett, who has researched this theme for a few years stated, "I think I have enough material for a book by now" One tale told was how the Nazis in the 1930s banned all creches, because of the Jewishness of the Holy Family.
Rather than judge the complex array of decisions faced by the teachers in the Creche, the sector must consider how we advocate for changes in the policy arena to ensure ongoing improvements in high-quality early childhood education.
The Linskill Creche are hoping to receive a big chunk of the cash so they can bring smiles to their childrens' faces this Christmas.
AN ELEVENTH-HOUR bid to save creches at Middlesbrough leisure centres from closure has failed.
Now, following a four month investigation, a 56-year-old female creche worker has been charged with attacking one of the kids.
Let's focus on creche cameras INSTALLING CCTV in creches may sound like a simple way to tackle mistreatment of children - but it is not as easy as that.