Criminalistics


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Related to Criminalistics: Forensic science

criminalistics

[‚krim·ən·əl′is·tiks]
(science and technology)

Criminalistics

 

the science that develops a system of special procedures, methods, and means for collecting, studying, and evaluating legal evidence used in criminal proceedings for the purpose of preventing, exposing, or investigating crimes. These procedures and methods are also used in the judicial consideration of criminal and sometimes civil cases.

The most important divisions of Soviet criminalistics are criminalistic technique and criminalistic tactics and methods of investigating and preventing various types of crime. Criminalistic technique is a system of special procedures and scientific-technical means for collecting, recording, and studying evidence. This division of criminalistics includes forensic ballistics, traceology (the forensic study of traces), forensic graphology, odorology (using odors in the investigation of crime), and dactyloscopy. Criminalistic technique is making more extensive use of advances in the natural and technical sciences and employing mathematical and statistical methods, computer equipment, and the methods of gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This trend has resulted in the development of a new set of methods for investigating handwriting, compiling a “word portrait,” and obtaining copies of traces in traceology. Criminalistic technique also requires extensive use of special technical equipment in investigation and examination.

By generalizing experience in the investigation and prevention of crime, studying methods used by criminals, and employing scientific advances made in different fields (physics, chemistry, biology), criminalistics develops criminalistic tactics—a system of procedures permitting the most effective use of the possibilities of each investigative and judicial action and of operational searches, taking into account the specific circumstances of the case. The procedures of criminalistic tactics are used extensively in identification and in conducting investigative experiments, searches, and other investigative actions. Criminalistic technique and tactics are inseparably linked because the development of criminalistic technique gives rise to new tactical procedures for using the technique. The variety of procedures used in investigating specific types of crime (murder, theft of state or personal property, bribery) constitutes the set of methods for investigating particular types of crime. This “particular methodology” serves as a guide for determining the sequence and nature of investigative acts and operational searches during the investigation and judicial examination of crimes of a particular category; it is also used in selecting the procedures and means of criminalistic technique and tactics.

Criminalistics also deals with problems of preventing crime.

REFERENCE

Kriminalistika. Moscow, 1971.

A. I. VINBERG

References in periodicals archive ?
(4) "Criminalistics", as it became known, evolved into the "recognition, collection, identification, individualization, and interpretation of physical evidence, and the application of the natural sciences to law-science matters." (5)
In the analysis process various ratio magnifying glasses (criminalistics, video spectral ("Regula 4077" and "Regula 4177"), different devices for document inspection ("Regula 4303", "Regula 4305", "Regula 5001", etc.), video spectral comparators are also used.
Unlike institutions dedicated to the hard sciences, crime labs do not, on the whole, encourage their scientific staff to publish in scientific journals on criminalistics. Instead, publication is generally discouraged, because it might negatively affect the lab or the law enforcement agency to which it is linked.
Spohn (criminality and criminal justice, Arizona State U.) and Tellis (criminal justice and criminalistics, California State U., Los Angeles) make use of tools such as logistic regression analysis to produce this scientific analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data.
I developed and implemented criminalistics materials to promote reading comprehension based on CALLA by designing six reading workshops as didactic units that provide both language and content learning activities, with an explicit focus on language learning strategies, the inclusion of relevant content, the possibility for interactive teaching and learning, and opportunities for students' self-assessment of their own learning process.
Tulleners is the director of the Graduate Forensic Science Program within UC Davis Extension, and former California Department of Justice laboratory director of the California Criminalistics Institute.
(2004), Criminalistics Treatise, 3rd edition reviewed and improved, Bucharest: Universul Juridic, 657.
Identification of a person by his/her externals is a necessary tool in the criminalistics and in other security applications important not only for investigation tasks and a searching for missing or suspected, but also for a direct identification.
The CRMC laboratory contributes educational opportunities to the BOCES Health Academy students who get introduced to the field of laboratory science; the high-school honor students work one-on-one with a section supervisor for an in-depth look at laboratory medicine: MLT students from Orange County Community College train in CRMC's lab, and phlebotomy students receive training from the laboratory's phlebotomy team, all preparing for a career in laboratory medicine, while Sullivan County Community College forensic-science students come for a criminalistics lecture and tour of CRMC's morgue.
Katharine Tellis, School of Criminal Justice and Criminalistics, California State University, Los Angeles.