The critical cooling rate
required for CPAfree ultrarapid freezing is 10000 degrees C per second, and to achieve it, the researchers used the inkjet cell printing technology.
In recent years, a number of works have been conducted on quenching machine referring to the heat transfer coefficient, critical cooling rate, plate temperature field, flow field, stress distribution, and microstructure distribution.
where [V.sub.T] and [V.sub.Tcr] are the actual cooling rate of plate from 800[degrees]C to 500[degrees]C and critical cooling rate, respectively.
To slow the metal's critical cooling rate to approximately 1 [degree] C to 100 [degrees] C per second, "we realized we had to go to a very complicated material," said Johnson the Ruben and Donna Mettler Professor of Engineering and Applied Science at Caltech.
Each cross section of a part needs to have a chunk of material with a certain critical cooling rate to keep the amorphous state.
Results also show that a critical cooling rate
of about 33.8 [degrees] F per second exists, below which the difference in pore volume between modified and unmodified alloys becomes very significant.
A physical model for the evaluation of chill formation in iron castings was developed, based on the concept of a critical cooling rate
at which a gray to white transition occurs.
With the calculated casting temperature history known, a comparison of simulated cooling rates with critical cooling rates
necessary to obtain certain microstructures can be used to determine the microstructure distribution in the casting after quenching.