critical temperature

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critical temperature

[′krid·ə·kəl ′tem·prə·chər]
(agriculture)
The temperature below which a plant cannot grow.
(physical chemistry)
The temperature of the liquid-vapor critical point, that is, the temperature above which the substance has no liquid-vapor transition. Symbolized Tc.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Critical Temperature

 

(1) The temperature of a substance in its critical state. For single substances the critical temperature is defined as the temperature at which the physical properties of the liquid and the vapor in equilibrium become identical. At the critical temperature the density of the saturated vapor and the liquid become identical, the interface between them disappears, and the heat of vaporization becomes zero. The critical temperature is one of the constants of a substance. (For the value of the critical temperature Tc for some substances, see.)

In binary systems (for example, propane-isopentane) the fluid-vapor equilibrium has no single critical temperature but rather a spatial critical curve for which the terminal points are the critical temperatures of the pure components.

(2) The temperature in fluid mixtures having components of limited solubility at which the mutual solubility becomes unlimited; it is called the critical solution temperature.

(3) The transition temperature of a number of conductors into the superconducting state. It has been measured for a large number of metals, alloys, and chemical compounds. In pure metals the lowest critical temperature occurs in titanium (0.37°K) and the highest in technetium (11.2°K). A very high value has been found in the compound Nb3Ge (Tc ≈ 23°K).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

critical temperature

1. The temperature at which a steel structure cannot carry the service load for which it was designed because of softening of the steel that occurs when it is heated significantly.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

critical temperature

i. The temperature inside the cylinder of a reciprocating engine that will cause the fuel to explode rather than burn evenly when it is ignited.
ii. The temperature at which the internal structure of a metal takes on a crystalline form.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
Cava and his colleagues at Princeton University describe a failed attempt to raise the compound's critical temperature by adding aluminum (http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0102262).
The characterization was carried out using conventional methods, that is, rheological measurements performed by a DSR and determination of the critical temperature in accordance with the SHRP to prove the resistance to permanent deformation.
In the June 28 SCIENCE, they report that the materials critical temperature under such pressure was 11 kelvins lower than that of a sample at ambient pressure (1 atmosphere).
Break points on the curves [DELTA][E.sub.i]([??]) correspond to the values of critical temperatures [mathematical expression not reproducible].
The surface tensions a of liquids over a temperature range are related to their critical temperatures [T.sub.c] according to either of two relationships.
Because material was by then in short supply, critical temperatures were not determined by the multi-specimen procedure specified in ISO 13477.
[1] studied the critical temperatures of lateral unrestrained steel beams under high temperatures.
Critical temperatures determined in BBR apparatus are presented in Figures 8 and 9 for unmodified bitumen and in Figures 11 and 12 for polymer modified bitumen.
ACCU-SAFE Enclosed Chamber Thermometers are precise, reliable and an economical means of measuring critical temperatures in blood bank refrigerators, ultra-low freezers, freezers, refrigerators, incubators, ambient/room, block heaters and ovens.
With a peak speed of 182" per second the Turbo-Seal Insulated door maintains critical temperatures by combining the highest average opening speed with the lowest total cost of operation.

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