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member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass. The name describes the croaking or grunting sounds produced by members of most species, chiefly during the breeding season. Croakers are found in sandy shallows of all temperate and warm seas. They range in weight from the 1-lb (0.5-kg) Atlantic croaker to the 150-lb (68-kg) common drum. The Atlantic croaker, common from Cape Cod to Texas, is an important food fish. The spot-fin croaker is found in the Pacific. The drums, the largest and noisiest croakers, include the red drum, or channel bass, of which over 2 million lb (900,000 kg) are taken per year off Florida; the common, or black, drum, found from New England to the Rio Grande; and the freshwater drum, found in central North America. The kingcroakers or kingfishes, also known as whitings, include the Northern kingfish, kingcroaker, or king whiting; the Southern kingcroaker, kingfish, or king whiting, also known as the sea mink; the gulf kingcroaker or kingfish, also known as the surf whiting; and the corbina of the Pacific. All average 3 lb (1.4 kg) in weight and 2 ft (60 cm) in length. Croakers are bottom feeders; those mentioned above have sensitive chin barbels to aid in locating their prey. The weakfishes, named for their easily torn flesh, lack barbels; they are also called sea trout. The common weakfish, or squeteague, abundant along the Atlantic coast, grows to 12 lb (5.5 kg) in weight and 3 ft (90 cm) in length. The more southerly spotted weakfish is similar. The white sea bass, weighing up to 60 lb (27 kg), is a Pacific croaker found as far north as Puget Sound. The spot, a small croaker, is commercially important in Virginia and the Carolinas, where the annual catch is estimated at 10 million lb (4.5 million kg) or more. Croakers are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, family Sciaenidae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Two previous studies compared diets of spot and croaker in Gulf estuarine habitats; Darnell (1958) investigated Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and Parker (1971) studied Lake Borgne, Louisiana and Clear Lake/Galveston Bay, Texas.
Female croakers caught during this period were found to have a decreased level of aromatase, the key chemical needed to produce estrogen and ovaries.
The 47-year-old Irish actress has been cast as Frank's new love interest, the plucky but well-meaning librarian Libby Croaker and - as her laugh suggests - she's turned ever so slightly shameless for her new role.
In addition to white croaker, the advisory now extends to topsmelt and barred sea bass, and includes other guidelines, including warnings for pregnant women.
recalled Frozen Salted Yellow Croaker due to possible botulism contamination.
They will raise their worries with Vernon Croaker MP, the Minister for Crime Reduction, at a major crime-busting conference in Birmingham on June 18.
Other products handled by Primstar include sole (sourced in Nigeria and exported primarily to Korea), cuttlefish, crab, squid, grouper, snapper and small croaker.
A separate vignette highlights habitat restoration among native seabirds, known as murrelets, while a third promotes safe fishing via an animated look at the white croaker, a fish at risk from DDTs and PCBs that are still found in the sand and mud on the ocean bottom.
The Shands Bridge, the railroad trestle near Palatka and, especially, the Croaker Hole, a 40-plus-foot spring down by Lake George, are all great places to find them.
Second division winner Boss Croaker (90+) looked top class.
Abstract--Using data collected simultaneously from a trawl and a hydrophone, we found that temporal and spatial trends in densities of juvenile Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) in the Neuse River estuary in North Carolina can be identified by monitoring their sound production.
Abundant species such as queenfish exhibited low thermal thresholds (15-20[degrees]C), while spotfin croaker and barred sand bass became stressed at higher temperatures (25-30[degrees]C).