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member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass. The name describes the croaking or grunting sounds produced by members of most species, chiefly during the breeding season. Croakers are found in sandy shallows of all temperate and warm seas. They range in weight from the 1-lb (0.5-kg) Atlantic croaker to the 150-lb (68-kg) common drum. The Atlantic croaker, common from Cape Cod to Texas, is an important food fish. The spot-fin croaker is found in the Pacific. The drums, the largest and noisiest croakers, include the red drum, or channel bass, of which over 2 million lb (900,000 kg) are taken per year off Florida; the common, or black, drum, found from New England to the Rio Grande; and the freshwater drum, found in central North America. The kingcroakers or kingfishes, also known as whitings, include the Northern kingfish, kingcroaker, or king whiting; the Southern kingcroaker, kingfish, or king whiting, also known as the sea mink; the gulf kingcroaker or kingfish, also known as the surf whiting; and the corbina of the Pacific. All average 3 lb (1.4 kg) in weight and 2 ft (60 cm) in length. Croakers are bottom feeders; those mentioned above have sensitive chin barbels to aid in locating their prey. The weakfishes, named for their easily torn flesh, lack barbels; they are also called sea trout. The common weakfish, or squeteague, abundant along the Atlantic coast, grows to 12 lb (5.5 kg) in weight and 3 ft (90 cm) in length. The more southerly spotted weakfish is similar. The white sea bass, weighing up to 60 lb (27 kg), is a Pacific croaker found as far north as Puget Sound. The spot, a small croaker, is commercially important in Virginia and the Carolinas, where the annual catch is estimated at 10 million lb (4.5 million kg) or more. Croakers are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, family Sciaenidae.
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References in periodicals archive ?
To further study the expression profiles of CC family members and the immune-regulatory mechanisms of large yellow croaker, this study reports the molecular characteristics and expression profile of three genes (dual chemokine ligand CCL17 and homeostatic chemokines ligands CCL21 and CCL24) following bacterial challenge.
The results of the 2-way ANOVA tests for main interaction effects indicate a lack of persistence (i.e., of statistically significant interaction) for Atlantic croaker, southern flounder, blue crab, and brown shrimp (Table 3).
Part of the fleet operate on the continental shelf and can be divided in two different fleets, according to their respective target species (i.e., sciaenid fish like Argentine croaker and whitemouth croaker) and mesh sizes (i.e., 100 and 130 mm, respectively).
The southern region is home to the surf-zone croaker. Southern California and Baja waters offer eight different croaker species, including the yellowfin, white, spotfin, and California corbina.
While a student, he had become friends with another poet, Fitz-Greene Halleck, with whom he began collaborating in 1819 on topical satirical verses; the result was the "Croaker Papers," published under a pseudonym in the New York Evening Post.
If the catch is kingfish, shark, white croaker, sturgeon, or perch, it's a safe bet it was hauled from the bay by a low-income person of color who is planning on fish for dinner.
After we get dressed Grandma gives each of us a lard bucket and a croaker sack and we go off like grown-ups going to work.
A series of satirical poems called "The Croaker Papers" appeared anonymously in the New York Evening Post and National Advertiser this year.
With his friend <IR> FITZ-GREENE HALLECK </IR> he composed the <IR> CROAKER PAPERS </IR> , clever skits on men and manners contributed (1819) to the New York Evening Post.
Fortunately, few fish today contain that much pesticide ("Unless, of course, you happen to catch your white croaker off a fishing pier in the Los Angeles area," according to Richard Gossett of the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project).
Items caught in Virginia waters include oysters, clams, scallops, blue fish, spot, croaker and blue crab.
Whatever the brothers catch is cooked at home: threadfin salmon, grouper, mullet, croaker fish, red snapper and rockfish.