The principal varieties of asbestos are a serpentine material called chrysotile, and crocidolite
, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite--which are a type of dark mineral called amphiboles (Mirabelli et al., 2008).
Serum levels of HMGB1 persisted long-term after exposure to crocidolite
fibers but not to chrysotile in asbestos-injected mice.
Elicited murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to crocidolite
asbestos fibers at a concentration of 20 [micro]g/[cm.sup.2] were assessed for induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome 24 hours following asbestos exposure.
Ootsuyama et al., "Increased 8hydroxyguanine in DNA and its repair activity in hamster and rat lung after intratracheal instillation of crocidolite
asbestos," Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol.
Brake dusts obtained from brakes containing chrysotile asbestos (brakes still worldwide in use) were compared to the amphibole, crocidolite
asbestos (raw material).
Risk of mesothelioma from exposure to crocidolite
asbestos: A 1995 update of a South African mortality study.
DISCUSSION: Malignant mesothelioma is pleural malignancy strongly associated with exposure to crocidolite
, chrysotile, amosite and all other type of asbestos.
There are several types of asbestos and the most commonly heard of are blue (crocidolite
), brown (amosite) and white (chrysotile).
Adopted in January 2000, the CCO strictly prohibits the use of amosite (brown) and crocidolite
(blue) asbestos fibers and of products containing these fibers, but permits the use of chrysolite (white) asbestos fibers in high density products.
[section] 61.141, states: "Asbestos means the asbestiform varieties of serpentinite (chrysotile), riebeckite (crocidolite
), cummingtonite-grunerite, anthophyllite, and actinolite-tremolite." Other federal agencies have adopted similar definitions of asbestos that include the same six forms of asbestos, including 29 C.F.R.
While blue asbestos (crocidolite
) and brown asbestos (amosite) are listed and are being progressively replaced in production, the Russian industry is mounting a rearguard action to prevent chrysotile from being listed.
Specifically, they are defined as being long and thin (having an aspect ratio greater than 3:1), and falling into categories of either "serpentine" (chrysotile) or "amphibole" (tremolite, amosite, crocidolite
, actinolite, and anthophyllite) .