Multiferroics are materials that display spontaneous ferroelectric and magnetic ordering at the same time, while the cross-coupling
between the magnetism and ferroelectricity in multiferroics represents the core issue of the physics of multiferroics.
This means controlling cross-coupling
The [m.sub.11], [m.sub.22], and [m.sub.12]=[m.sub.21] physically represent the effective input inertia, effective output inertia, and cross-coupling
bearing unit Courtesy of IMV
effects are known as the Alford effect  and can occur in all gas turbines and high pressure compressors.
Bearings were considered isotropic ([k.sub.xx] = [k.sub.yy] = k and [c.sub.xx] = [c.sub.yy] = c), with negligible cross-coupling
effects ([k.sub.xy] = [k.sub.yx] = 0 and [c.sub.xy] = [c.sub.yx] = 0).
Palladium mediated cross-coupling
reactions constitute one of the main synthetic tools for creation of new carbon-carbon bonds [1, 2].
Grignard Reagents and Transition Metal Catalysts: Formation of C-C Bonds by Cross-Coupling
Over the past decade, as a member of York University's Department of Chemistry, Organ and his team developed one of the world's most widely used systems for palladium-mediated cross-coupling
, pyridine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (PEPPSI) and explored the concept of using microwaves to promote capillary flow for organic synthesis.
Heck's discoveries laid the foundation for all modern cross-coupling
In the 1950's and 60's, research on single phase materials proved both the existence of ME materials  and that single crystal materials are inadequate for most engineering applications, since the cross-coupling
effect was generally too weak to be of practical value [2,3].
These breakthroughs include (i) realization that Me-branched chiral compounds can be synthesized by ZACA reaction via a few alternate and mutually complementary routes (Scheme 5), (ii) unexpected finding that 2,4-dimethyl-1-hydroxybutyl moieties can be readily purified by ordinary chromatography (Scheme 6), (83) and (iii) subsequent Pd- or Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling
proceeds with essentially full (>99%) retention of newly formed chiral centers (Scheme 7).