Hypothesis 1 (H1) was aimed at assessing the cross-level
mediation of servant leadership (of occupational head) and identification with leader, with lower level mediation of servant leadership of team leaders (Mathieu and Taylor, 2007).
The multilevel models were calculated as random intercept and slope models with cross-level
model, Multi-level approach, Organizational commitment.
We performed a keyword search of the full texts of the articles in the targeted journals using the following and related keywords: "multilevel," "multilevel analysis," "hierarchical linear modeling," "HLM," "nested data," "cross-level
data," "level of measurement," "random coefficients models," and "Raudenbush" (because of the common application of HLM software in multilevel research) (Ozkaya et al., 2013).
The findings not only advance our understanding of the cross-level
dynamics of social capital, but also provide a possible explanation for the mixed empirical results found in previous studies.
Specific methodological issues are then addressed in chapter clusters, with a cluster on design addressing cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, negative wording, missing data, and sample size; a cluster on analysis discussing weighted composites, outliers, and the Sobel test; and a cluster on interpretation offering caution when comparing reliability estimates, attenuating shared method bias, and dealing with cross-level
effects and measurement invariance.
Model 2 in Table 1 presents cross-level
interactions effects in multilevel modeling.
Findings reveal that: (1) children who experienced a lack of community were less engaged and had more difficulty academically; (2) teachers' perceptions of support and safety in school were also related to academic outcomes; (3) cross-level
interaction pointed to the importance of considering the fit between the child and the school environment--children who had a good fit (i.e., perceived a more negative climate in the context of a school with a more negative climate) actually reported being more engaged, compared to children who had a poor fit (i.e., perceived a negative climate in the context of a less negative climate); and (4) SACD programs did not directly improve academic outcomes.
A third objective was to explore the interaction of individual and agency factors (termed cross-level
interaction; that is, moderation in multilevel modeling terminology).
If this is the case, then cross-level
interactions are possible, suggesting a final moderation hypothesis relating to the level of climate in the group:
Now we have to cross-level
this, because we've realized we're spending way too much on personnel.