To compare the effects of dark and milk chocolate on both appetite and subsequent calorie intake, 16 young and healthy men of normal weight who all liked both dark and milk chocolate took part in a so-called crossover experiment
. This meant that they reported for two separate sessions, the first time testing the dark chocolate, and the second time the milk chocolate.
Among 11 students given 0.41, 0.63 and 0.85 g/kg of alcohol (peak BAC approximately 0.035%, 0.06% and 0.09%) in a randomized double-blind crossover experiment
, the highest euphoria and lowest tension were observed after the highest dose (Persson et al., 1980).
Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples.
It is important to note that BAL data were from paired experiments only, and hematologic data were from crossover experiments. In preliminary BAL analyses, differences between exposure groups (baseline, sham, CAPs) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests.
Red blood cell parameters [daily mean (SE) of 6 samples] related to animal exposures obtained in crossover experiments related to animal exposure.
We performed exploratory graphical linear regression analyses to identify associations between biologic responses and CAPs mass, component data, or weather parameters from paired and crossover experiments. CAPs exposure parameters examined in these studies included integrated CAPs mass, CAPs sulfate mass, fine CAPs mass, black carbon, CAPs elemental mass concentrations (Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb, Ba), ambient temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure.
Weather data were not associated with alterations in biologic responses in exploratory graphical analyses of either paired or crossover experiments.