While the areas of crown fire
activity and the active fire front, as well as the rates of spread, for the Mount Bolton fire were not extreme compared to many pyroconvection examples, to date there have been no attempts to link radar signatures of any sort with the metric of fire severity (Fromm et al.
The SOM content in the crown fire
ash of the Togliatti plot was less than that observed in the surface fire ash.
Area occupied by regions sensitive to crown fires Crown fire
risk Area (ha) % High 20 375 17 Null 97 727 83 Total 118 202 100 Table 16.
Arthur White, a survivor, described the scene: "We ran into a regular hell of flames and smoke which swept over the open car we were crowded into, setting our clothes on fire and singeing our hair." After a quarter mile, the train broke through the crown fire
. A few minutes later, the locomotive slammed through another fire.
Despite control efforts, some wildfires clearly become the kind of conflagration (stand replacement fire or crown fire
) that gets media attention.
Seventy-two percent of the acres receiving the treatments prescribed under the comprehensive approach remained in the low-hazard category for crown fire
30 years later.
At present, fuel loads are so high that introducing fire on a broad scale is likely to result in many stand-replacing crown fires
. Then, of course, there is the human footprint, including communities, residences within the urban-wildland interface, etc.
Nearly three-fourths of the acres receiving the treatments prescribed under the comprehensive approach remained in the low-hazard category for crown fire
30 years later (Table 1).
latifolia) has serotinous cones, regenerates well following crown fire
, and requires exposed mineral soil for seed germination and seedling establishment; we therefore expected seedling density to be greatest in areas severely burned by crown fires
Crossdated cores from larger sand pine trees in the stand indicated ages from 60-80 yr; the site has not experienced crown fire
for at least that period.
Declining herb pollen [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED] suggests a transition from open spruce woodland to a more closed-canopy Pinus banksiana/Picea forest with crown fire
at 50-200 yr, as observed today in northern Ontario and Manitoba (Lynham and Stocks 1991), regions consistent with modern analog comparisons for this interval [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4C OMITTED].
I watched in horror as conifers flashed to tinder point and the woods erupted into what ecopyrologists call a "running crown fire
." The wilderness was reduced to a smoke-blackened ruin.