The predatory crown-of-thorns
starfish, which eat coral, have also proliferated on the reef due to pollution and agricultural runoff.
According to scientists, there are mainly two reasons for the outbreak of the crown-of-thorns
The corals have also been hit by a crown-of-thorns
Threats to the reef include "large amounts of sediment, nitrogen and pesticide run-off" as well as the crown-of-thorns
starfish species, Environment Minister Josh Frydenberg said.
is a large, multiple-armed starfish that usually preys on hard, or stony, coral polyps.
This allowed the team to see through the robot's cameras, verify every crown-of-thorns
starfish it identified, and approve injections of the pests before they happened.
The topics are pair formation in coral reef fishes: an ecological perspectives; the ecosystem roles of parrotfishes on tropical reefs; limits to understanding and managing outbreaks of crown-of-thorns
starfish (Acanthaster spp.); the ecology of ghost crabs; citizen scientists and marine research: volunteer participants, their contributions, and projection for the future; and the claw hypothesis: a new perspective on the role of biogenic sulfur in the regulation of global climate.
Giant sea snails emit a scent that frightens the crown-of-thorns
starfish, the reef's chief predator.
Intense tropical cyclones, 34 in total since 1985, were responsible for much of the damage, accounting for 48 percent, with outbreaks of the coral-feeding crown-of-thorns
starfish linked to 42 per cent, the report said.
Holly, with its sharply pointed leaves, symbolised the thorns in Christ's crown-of-thorns
. Red berries symbolised the drops of Christ's blood.
They tracked populations of coral-eating crown-of-thorns
starfish and found that even low-intensity fishing of the starfish's predators enabled it to multiply significantly and destroy the reef.