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in strength of materials, a localized compressive stress, accompanied, as a rule, by permanent deformation (pressing down) of the material. Crumpling occurs in joints (bolted, riveted, key) in locations of structural supports, and in contact zones of compressed components.

The magnitude of crumpling stress in structures is usually kept below the allowable crumpling stress. This allowable stress is determined by the character of the surfaces in contact, the properties of the structural material, and the orientation of this material with respect to applied loads (for instance, with wood, parallel or perpendicular to the grain). Various design features aimed at reducing crumpling stresses and, more important, permanent deformation distribute the compressive stress over a large area with the aid of, for example, washers, liners, and pads. One of the most effective means for reducing deformation is the use of special inserts and fillers in the contact zones made of materials that are stronger than the structural material.


References in periodicals archive ?
Davidovitch says they were inspired and moved toward a solution by thinking about how a familiar birthday balloon, made of two circular mylar foils, wrinkles and crumples (two separate processes).
Crumple one half section of newspaper into a ball for the head.
A field of triangles crumples and twists into a wavy crystalline sea.
The traditional crumple tests were performed along with two other mechanical tests.
In an automobile the crumple zone is the area that is designed to collapse in order to absorb the energy from a collision, thus saving the passengers' lives.
In addition, Burnout Revenge adds 10 new crash junctions, dozens of completely re-worked tracks and cars built from the ground up to crumple, rip and tear in the most violent, spectacular crashes ever seen in a video game.
Historically, higher value vehicles warranted repair, but currently, higher-end vehicles include many more safety features such as crumple zones, laminated glass, and multiple air bags that, if activated, contribute to the vehicle's propensity to be scrapped.
If no bees have arrived by the time the flower starts to crumple with age, the stamens snap up anyway and dump pollen onto the flower's own female organ.
In addition, many of the safest autos in the world feature Alcoa products in their crash management systems and crumple zones, side-impact beams and engine cradles.
It takes energy to crumple a sheet-to force it uniformly into a smaller and smaller ball.
Railtrack was slammed yesterday for leaving pounds 400million worth of new trains in the sidings while passengers are forced to use 40-year- old rolling stock, which can crumple in a crash.
Standard on both Pathfinder models are Zone Body construction with front and rear crumple zones, the Nissan Advanced Air Bag System and the brand's LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren) child seat anchor system.