crust

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crust

1. Geology the solid outer shell of the earth, with an average thickness of 30--35 km in continental regions and 5 km beneath the oceans, forming the upper part of the lithosphere and lying immediately above the mantle, from which it is separated by the Mohorovicić discontinuity
2. the dry covering of a skin sore or lesion; scab
3. Oenology a layer of acid potassium tartrate deposited by some wine, esp port, on the inside of the bottle
4. Biology the hard outer layer of such organisms as lichens and crustaceans
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

crust

The outermost solid layer of a terrestrial planet or a satellite, consisting of rock, ice, or a mixture of the two. See also Earth.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Crust

 

in plants, a complex of tissues on the surface of the stem and roots of woody plants, consisting of dead peridermal cells and parts of the bark. The crust forms as layers of periderm repeatedly form in the phloem. In the case of more or less concentric arrangement of peridermal layers, a ringed crust forms (as in mock orange and grapes); if the peridermal layers overlap, a scaly crust forms (as in oak). Depending on the nature of the depositing of crust, it falls from the surface of the tree in layers, ribbons, or scales. Crust usually forms late (in birch, pine, and oak when the tree is 25–35 years old); it protects the plant from excessive evaporation, sharp fluctuations of temperature, and other undesirable effects.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

crust

[krəst]
(geology)
The outermost solid layer of the earth, mostly consisting of crystalline rock and extending no more than a few miles from the surface to the Mohorovičić discontinuity. Also known as earth crust.
(hydrology)
A hard layer of snow lying on top of a soft layer.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The ALCUDIA-NI profile provides a detailed image of the Variscan crustal structures and significant differences between a weakly reflective upper crust and a thick, highly reflective and laminated lower crust.
Horizontal shortening in the upper crust by brittle folding and faulting correlates positively with crustal thickening, an increase in Moho depth, and the topography.
Labbe, J.-Y., 2001, Crustal lineaments and kimberlite discovery potential in western Nouveau-Quebec: Ministere des Ressources naturelles, Quebec, PRO 2001-02, 7 p.
This makes, that the use of such data for the development of vertical crustal movements is not an easy task.
An array of present-day well-log, well-core, and well-production evidence indicates that the process of sediment consolidation imprints on sedimentary crustal formations a set of scale-independent random spatial correlations that control formation permeability at all scales [9-16].
Then, the paper does the study of rock mass vibration in the moderate or far distance of blasting, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field of blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under different crustal stress.
The eastern margin of the Qinghai--Tibet Plateau (QTP) is the focus of studies on eastward lateral extrusion of the latter's crustal material.
Although strength strongly depends on the structure, temperature, composition, strain rate and stress regime of the lithosphere (Fernandez and Ranalli 1997; Afonso and Ranalli 2004; Ruiz et al., 2006; Fernandez-Ibanez and Soto 2008; Burov 2011; Jimenez-Diaz et al., 2012), average crustal and mantle structures over large areas, diverse lithologies (hard/ soft) and stress regimes (compression/tension) were assumed in those previous studies.
The crustal magnetic field (or lithospheric field) generated by the remanent magnetization and the induced magnetization in the crust and upper mantle is an important part of the geomagnetic field.
Beth Orcutt of the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences used the JOIDES Resolution, a sophisticated 470-foot scientific drilling vessel operated by the international Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), to sample the muddy and sandy sediments that blanket the rocks on the seafloor, as well as drill into the hard crustal rocks themselves in order to understand how microbes can "breathe" and get the energy necessary to live in this remote environment.