crustose


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crustose

[′krəs‚tōs]
(botany)
Of a lichen, forming a thin crustlike thallus which adheres closely to the substratum of rock, bark, or soil.
References in periodicals archive ?
Larvae build their cases using small crustose lichen particles, forming wide oval-shaped cases.
But even though we need to go beyond growth forms to better identify growth factors, it must be borne in mind that they are useful ecological concepts when researchers want to generalize and predict: for example, crustose lichens can colonize more extreme habitats (Rogers, 1990) while foliose and fruticose species are better competitors in less demanding environments (Armstrong, 1993; Armstrong & Welch, 2007).
The New Zealand abalone is among those invertebrate larvae that depend directly on the presence of crustose coralline algae.
The animals appear to be patchily distributed in areas along the southern California mainland, and distribution may be correlated with substrate type (flat rock preferred over uneven), relief (low relief with scattered rock and boulders preferred over high relief), the presence of intermittent sand channels that may accumulate drift kelp, and algal composition in that Pelagophycus porra, Laminaria farlowii, Agarum fimbriatum, Pterygophora californica, and coralline algae (articulated and crustose) are often present in areas where pinto abalone occur (Bird unpublished data, Hagey et al.
This unique pink formation, crustose coralline algae, helps cement coral reefs together and is hard enough to walk on (though visitors should avoid stepping on the fragile coral itself).
franksi settlement assays, each experimental replicate contained 20 larvae placed in a 55-mm petri dish (~ 10-ml-volume seawater) with a small chip of the crustose coralline algae (CCA) Hydrolithon boergesenii (~1 [cm.sup.2]).
44% that reproduce primarily through sexual ascospores; iii) comprised of 65% crustose taxa, 29% foliose taxa, and 6% fruticose taxa: iv) one wherein many species arc rare (e.g., 55% of species were collected fewer than three times) and frulicose lichens other than Cladonia were entirely absent; and v) one wherein cyanolichens were poorly represented, comprising only three species.
For example, growth and gonad production of Strongylocentrotus nudus, which is commercially harvested in northern Japan, are greatest in kelp beds, followed by fucoid beds and small perennial algal turf beds such as those formed by the red alga Chondrus ocellatus, and least in Crustose coralline dominated "barren" beds (Agatsuma, 1997; Sano et al., 2001; Agatsuma et al., 2005a; Nakabayashi et al., 2006).
It's known as crustose coralline algae, or CCA, and it's particularly sensitive to acidification, which is a major consequence of increased carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere: the acidity of marine waters increases as our oceans absorb more and more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
'Seawater is already 30 per cent more acidic than it used to be and sensitive organisms such as crustose coralline algae are likely to be responding to those changes,' Fabricius says.